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We have investigated a possible involvement of GTPases in nuclear protein import using an in vitro transport system involving digitonin-permeabilized cells supplemented with exogenous cytosol. Transport in this system was measured with a novel ELISA-based assay that allows rapid quantitative analysis. GTP gamma S and other nonhydrolyzable analogues of GTP(More)
We have found that the mammalian Ran GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is highly concentrated at the cytoplasmic periphery of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), where it associates with the 358-kDa Ran-GTP-binding protein RanBP2. This interaction requires the ATP-dependent posttranslational conjugation of RanGAP1 with SUMO-1 (for small ubiquitin-related(More)
Mediated import of proteins into the nucleus involves multiple cytosolic factors, including the small GTPase Ran. Whether Ran functions by interacting with other cytosolic proteins or components of the nuclear pore complex has been unclear. Furthermore, the precise transport step where Ran acts has not been determined. To address these questions, we have(More)
Posttranslational modification with SUMO1 regulates protein/protein interactions, localization, and stability. SUMOylation requires the E1 enzyme Aos1/Uba2 and the E2 enzyme Ubc9. A family of E3-like factors, PIAS proteins, was discovered recently. Here we show that the nucleoporin RanBP2/Nup358 also has SUMO1 E3-like activity. RanBP2 directly interacts(More)
RanBP2, a protein containing FG repeat motifs and four binding sites for the guanosine triphosphatase Ran, is localized at the cytoplasmic periphery of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and is believed to play a critical role in nuclear protein import. We purified RanBP2 from rat liver nuclear envelopes and examined its structural and biochemical properties.(More)
Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins are reversibly coupled to numerous intracellular targets and modulate their interactions, localization, activity or stability. Recent advances in the SUMO field have uncovered the first SUMO E3 ligases and point to a complex family of isopeptidases. SUMO has been linked to many different pathways, including(More)
The mammalian guanosine triphosphate (GTP)ase-activating protein RanGAP1 is the first example of a protein covalently linked to the ubiquitin-related protein SUMO-1. Here we used peptide mapping, mass spectroscopy analysis, and mutagenesis to identify the nature of the link between RanGAP1 and SUMO-1. SUMO-1 is linked to RanGAP1 via glycine 97, indicating(More)
The small Ras-related GTPase Ran is directly involved in nuclear protein import and export. However, the question of how Ran functions in transport is highly controversial. Here, we suggest that Ran is important for the formation, vectorial movement and disassembly of many different classes of transport complexes that traverse the nuclear pore complex(More)
The RanGTPase activating protein RanGAP1 has essential functions in both nucleocytoplasmic transport and mitosis. In interphase, a significant fraction of vertebrate SUMO1-modified RanGAP1 forms a stable complex with the nucleoporin RanBP2/Nup358 at nuclear pore complexes. RanBP2 not only acts in the RanGTPase cycle but also is a SUMO1 E3 ligase. Here, we(More)
Histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) is relevant for homeostasis and plays a critical role in gastrointestinal cancers. Here, we report that post-translational modification of endogenous HDAC2 with small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 (SUMO1) is a new regulatory switch for the tumor suppressor p53. Sumoylation of HDAC2 at lysine 462 allows binding of HDAC2 to p53.(More)