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We have investigated a possible involvement of GTPases in nuclear protein import using an in vitro transport system involving digitonin-permeabilized cells supplemented with exogenous cytosol. Transport in this system was measured with a novel ELISA-based assay that allows rapid quantitative analysis. GTP gamma S and other nonhydrolyzable analogues of GTP(More)
We have found that the mammalian Ran GTPase-activating protein RanGAP1 is highly concentrated at the cytoplasmic periphery of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), where it associates with the 358-kDa Ran-GTP-binding protein RanBP2. This interaction requires the ATP-dependent posttranslational conjugation of RanGAP1 with SUMO-1 (for small ubiquitin-related(More)
Mediated import of proteins into the nucleus involves multiple cytosolic factors, including the small GTPase Ran. Whether Ran functions by interacting with other cytosolic proteins or components of the nuclear pore complex has been unclear. Furthermore, the precise transport step where Ran acts has not been determined. To address these questions, we have(More)
A decade has passed since SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier) was discovered to be a reversible post-translational protein modifier. During this time many enzymes that participate in regulated SUMO-conjugation and -deconjugation pathways have been identified and characterized. In parallel, the search for SUMO substrates has produced a long list of(More)
Transcriptional repression mediated through histone deacetylation is a critical component of eukaryotic gene regulation. Here we demonstrate that the class II histone deacetylase HDAC4 is covalently modified by the ubiquitin-related SUMO-1 modifier. A sumoylation-deficient point mutant (HDAC4-K559R) shows a slightly impaired ability to repress transcription(More)
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) are gateways for nucleocytoplasmic exchange. To analyze their structure in a close-to-life state, we studied transport-active, intact nuclei from Dictyostelium discoideum by means of cryoelectron tomography. Subvolumes of the tomograms containing individual NPCs were extracted in silico and subjected to three-dimensional(More)
Posttranslational modification with SUMO1 regulates protein/protein interactions, localization, and stability. SUMOylation requires the E1 enzyme Aos1/Uba2 and the E2 enzyme Ubc9. A family of E3-like factors, PIAS proteins, was discovered recently. Here we show that the nucleoporin RanBP2/Nup358 also has SUMO1 E3-like activity. RanBP2 directly interacts(More)
RanBP2, a protein containing FG repeat motifs and four binding sites for the guanosine triphosphatase Ran, is localized at the cytoplasmic periphery of the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and is believed to play a critical role in nuclear protein import. We purified RanBP2 from rat liver nuclear envelopes and examined its structural and biochemical properties.(More)
BICD2 is one of the two mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Bicaudal D, an evolutionarily conserved adaptor between microtubule motors and their cargo that was previously shown to link vesicles and mRNP complexes to the dynein motor. Here, we identified a G2-specific role for BICD2 in the relative positioning of the nucleus and centrosomes in dividing(More)
The RNA1 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined by the temperature-sensitive rna1-1 mutation that interferes with the maturation and/or nucleocytoplasmic transport of RNA. We describe the purification of a 44-kDa protein from the evolutionary distant fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the cloning and sequence analysis of the corresponding(More)