Fraser James Sim

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Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
The age-associated decrease in the efficiency of CNS remyelination has clear implications for recovery from demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) that may last for several decades. Developing strategies to reverse the age-associated decline requires the identification of how the regenerative process is impaired. We addressed whether(More)
An association between macrophages and remyelination efficiency has been observed in a variety of different models of CNS demyelination. In order to test whether this association is causal or coincidental, we have examined the effects of macrophage depletion on the rate of remyelination of lysolecithin-induced demyelination in the spinal cord of young adult(More)
Malignant astrocytic brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers. Quiescent and therapy-resistant neural stem cell (NSC)-like cells in astrocytomas are likely to contribute to poor outcome. Malignant oligodendroglial brain tumors, in contrast, are therapy sensitive. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and detailed developmental analyses, we(More)
Experimental animals with myelin disorders can be treated by transplanting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into the affected brain or spinal cord. OPCs have been isolated by their expression of gangliosides recognized by mAb A2B5, but this marker also identifies lineage-restricted astrocytes and immature neurons. To establish a more efficient means(More)
OBJECTIVE Glial progenitor cells are abundant in adult human white matter. This study was designed to identify signaling pathways regulating their self-renewal and fate. METHODS We compared the transcriptional profiles of freshly sorted adult human white matter progenitor cells (WMPCs), purified by A2B5-based immunomagnetic sorting, with those of the(More)
Since myelination and remyelination both involve investing an axon with a myelin sheath, a plausible hypothesis is that the two processes involve the expression of similar transcription factors. In this study we have addressed this hypothesis by comparing the expression of messenger RNA of Gtx, a homeodomain transcription factor expressed within(More)
Vanishing white matter disease is a genetic leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B. Patients experience a slowly progressive neurological deterioration with episodes of rapid clinical worsening triggered by stress. The disease may occur at any age and leads to early death. Characteristic neuropathological(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), although having a separate developmental origin to Schwann cells, are able to generate myelin sheaths following transplantation into areas of CNS demyelination that are remarkably similar to those made by Schwann cells. The transcriptional control of Schwann cell myelination has been well documented, in particular the(More)
TGF-β receptors (TGF-βRs) inhibit growth of many cell types. Loss of TGF-βRs or its signaling components have been found in several human malignancies. The expression and the role of TGF-βRs in regulating anaplastic meningioma growth has not been studied. Real time PCR found TGF-β RIII expression significantly lower in five grade III compared to eight grade(More)