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The structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been determined at close to atomic resolution by X-ray diffraction without experimental phase information. The virus shows similarities with other picornaviruses but also several unique features. The canyon or pit found in other picornaviruses is absent; this has important implications for cell attachment.(More)
We have obtained evidence that poliovirus and other picornavirus particles are specifically modified by having myristic acid covalently bound to a capsid protein. The electron density map of poliovirus confirms the position of the myristate molecule and defines its location in the virus particle. Analogies with other myristylated proteins suggest that the(More)
The infective RNA of the calicivirus, vesicular exanthema virus, has been shown to contain a protein which is apparently linked to the RNA by a covalent bond. The protein remained bound to the RNA after boiling with SDS-mercaptoethanol-urea or treating with formamide-dimethylsulphoxide but was removed by incubating with proteinase K. The mol. wt. of the(More)
The amino acid sequence RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) is highly conserved in the VP1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), despite being situated in the immunodominant hypervariable region between amino acids 135 and 160. RGD-containing proteins are known to be important in promoting cell attachment in several different systems, and we(More)
We have identified continuous antigenic determinants within the amino acid sequences of the conserved nonstructural region containing proteins 2C and 3ABC of foot-and-mouth disease virus which can distinguish between the sera from vaccinated and infected animals. An ELISA based on a 3B peptide gave a positive reaction with sera from cattle, pigs, sheep and(More)
Study of the immune response to synthetic antigens has shown that uncoupled peptides can realize their potential as vaccines only if they contain domains that react with helper T-cell receptors and Ia antigens in addition to antibody binding sites. Here we consider whether genetically restricted non-responsiveness to an uncoupled peptide could be overcome(More)
Mass spectrometry and fluorescent probes have provided direct evidence that alkylating agents permeate the protein capsid of naked viruses and chemically inactivate the nucleic acid. N-acetyl-aziridine and a fluorescent alkylating agent, dansyl sulfonate aziridine, inactivated three different viruses, flock house virus, human rhinovirus-14, and foot and(More)
One of the difficulties in controlling foot and mouth disease by vaccination is the occurrence of the virus as seven distinct serotypes because immunity conferred by vaccination against one serotype leaves the animals susceptible to infection by the other six. Moreover, the antigenic variation, even within a serotype, can be so great that immunity against(More)