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ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) 6 regulates the movement of membrane between the plasma membrane (PM) and a nonclathrin-derived endosomal compartment and activates phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP 5-kinase), an enzyme that generates phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). Here, we show that PIP2 visualized by expressing a fusion protein of(More)
The structure of foot-and-mouth disease virus has been determined at close to atomic resolution by X-ray diffraction without experimental phase information. The virus shows similarities with other picornaviruses but also several unique features. The canyon or pit found in other picornaviruses is absent; this has important implications for cell attachment.(More)
The GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) regulates endosomal membrane trafficking and the actin cytoskeleton in the cell periphery. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are critical regulators of Arf function, controlling the return of Arf to the inactive GDP-bound state. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two Arf6 GAPs,(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) activity has been implicated in the regulation of membrane trafficking [1,2], superoxide generation and cytoskeletal remodelling [3,4]. Several PLD genes have now been identified and it is probable that different isoforms regulate distinct functions. Defining the subcellular localisation of each isoform would facilitate understanding(More)
ARNO is a soluble guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the Arf family of GTPases. Although in biochemical assays ARNO prefers Arf1 over Arf6 as a substrate, its localization in cells at the plasma membrane (PM) suggests an interaction with Arf6. In this study, we found that ARNO activated Arf1 in HeLa and COS-7 cells resulting in the recruitment of(More)
Epitopes of strain A22 Iraq 24/64 of foot-and-mouth disease virus have been mapped with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Three methods were used: (i) an indirect ELISA using an overlapping set of peptides, (ii) production of neutralization escape variants against each MAb and (iii) sequencing of neutralization escape variants. The study has shown that the(More)
A surface loop (25/50-kDa loop) near the nucleotide pocket of myosin has been proposed to be an important element in determining the rate of ADP release from myosin, and as a consequence, the rate of actin-myosin filament sliding (Spudich, J. A. (1991) Nature 372, 515-518). To test this hypothesis, loops derived from different myosin II isoforms that(More)
The amino acid sequence RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartic acid) is highly conserved in the VP1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), despite being situated in the immunodominant hypervariable region between amino acids 135 and 160. RGD-containing proteins are known to be important in promoting cell attachment in several different systems, and we(More)
We have identified continuous antigenic determinants within the amino acid sequences of the conserved nonstructural region containing proteins 2C and 3ABC of foot-and-mouth disease virus which can distinguish between the sera from vaccinated and infected animals. An ELISA based on a 3B peptide gave a positive reaction with sera from cattle, pigs, sheep and(More)