Franziska Schneider

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Severe behavioural deficits in psychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia have been hypothesized to arise from elevations in the cellular balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I balance) within neural microcircuitry. This hypothesis could unify diverse streams of pathophysiological and genetic evidence, but has not been susceptible to direct(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 is a light-gated ion channel and a major tool of optogenetics. It is used to control neuronal activity via blue light. Here we describe the construction of color-tuned high efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs), based on chimeras of Chlamydomonas channelrhodopsin-1 and Volvox channelrhodopsin-1. These variants show superb expression and(More)
The field of optogenetics uses channelrhodopsins (ChRs) for light-induced neuronal activation. However, optimized tools for cellular inhibition at moderate light levels are lacking. We found that replacement of E90 in the central gate of ChR with positively charged residues produces chloride-conducting ChRs (ChloCs) with only negligible cation conductance.(More)
We analyzed the nonlinear current-voltage relationships of the early conducting state of channelrhodopsin-2 expressed in Xenopus oocytes and human embryonic kidney cells with respect to changes of the electrochemical gradients of H(+), Na(+)/K(+), and Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). Several models were tested for wild-type ChR2 and mutations at positions E90, E123, H134,(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are light-gated cation channels that mediate ion transport across membranes in microalgae (vectorial catalysis). ChRs are now widely used for the analysis of neural networks in tissues and living animals with light (optogenetics). For elucidation of functional mechanisms at the atomic level, as well as for further engineering and(More)
The C. elegans nervous system is particularly well suited for optogenetic analyses of circuit function: Essentially all connections have been mapped, and light can be directed at the neuron of interest in the freely moving, transparent animals, while behavior is observed. Thus, different nodes of a neuronal network can be probed for their role in(More)
Channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels of green algae. They are widely used for the analysis of neuronal networks using light in the emerging field of optogenetics. Under steady-state light conditions, the two open states, O1 and O2, mediate the photocurrents with different ion conductance and selectivity. To understand the conducting process as(More)
Acidification is required for the function of many intracellular organelles, but methods to acutely manipulate their intraluminal pH have not been available. Here we present a targeting strategy to selectively express the light-driven proton pump Arch3 on synaptic vesicles. Our new tool, pHoenix, can functionally replace endogenous proton pumps, enabling(More)
Channelrhodopsins (ChRs) are directly light-gated ion channels that function as sensory photoreceptors in flagellated green algae, allowing these algae to identify optimal light conditions for growth. In neuroscience, ChRs constitute the most versatile tools for the light-induced activation of selected cells or cell types with unprecedented precision in(More)
This paper presents two open source e-learning tools developed at the University of Zurich: eLML (eLesson Markup Language), an XML framework allowing authors of e-learning lessons to create structured and sustainable content and OLAT (Online Learning And Training), a learning management system (LMS) used by universities to manage e-learning courses, to(More)