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Conspicuous male colouration is expected to have evolved primarily through selection by female choice. In what way conspicuous colours could be advantageous to males scrambling for mates remains largely unknown. The moor frog (Rana arvalis) belongs to the so-called explosive breeders in which spawning period is short; intrasexual competition is strong, and(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical and ethical implications of personality and mood changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) are under debate. Although subjectively perceived personality changes are often mentioned by patients and caregivers, few empirical studies concerning these changes exist. Therefore, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To elucidate whether Parkinson's disease (PD) subtypes show a differential pattern of FP-CIT-SPECT binding during the disease course. METHODS We examined 27 patients (10 female, 17 male, mean age 61.68±11.24 years, 14 tremordominant, 13 akinetic-rigid) with [(123)I]FP-CIT-SPECT and clinical ratings including UPDRS III after at baseline and after(More)
OBJECTIVE To study patients' expectations of subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) and their subjective perceived outcome, by using qualitative and quantitative methods in Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS PD patients were prospectively examined before and 3 months after surgery. Semistructured interviews regarding preoperative expectations and(More)
Inconsistent findings regarding the effects of dopaminergic medication (MED) and deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) on decision making processes and impulsivity in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have been reported. This study investigated the influence of MED and STN-DBS on decision-making under risk. Eighteen non-demented PD(More)
BACKGROUND This study investigated impaired self-awareness of motor deficits in nondemented, nondepressed Parkinson's disease (PD) patients during a defined clinical on state. METHODS Twenty-eight PD patients were examined. Patients' self-ratings and experts' ratings of patients' motor performance were compared. Patient-examiner discrepancies and level of(More)
To study the caregivers' perception of their own well-being 1 year after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) surgery in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, using a qualitative and quantitative approach. 25 patients and caregivers, living together in partnerships, were examined before and at 3-month and 1-year follow-up (FU) after STN-DBS surgery.(More)
BACKGROUND Bilateral deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) has considerable influence on motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). While improvements in motor functioning can be easily assessed with general quality of life questionnaires, the measurement of specific STN-DBS-associated impairments often remains(More)
INTRODUCTION Anosognosia or impaired self-awareness of motor symptoms (ISAm) has been rarely investigated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We here studied the relationship between ISAm during periods with and without dopaminergic medication (ON- and OFF-state), and clinical, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging data to further elucidate behavioural aspects and(More)
BACKGROUND Although motor symptoms predominate in essential tremor, increasing evidence indicates additional cognitive deficits. According to the pivotal role of cognitive functioning for temporal information processing and acknowledging the relevance of temporal information processing for movement coordination, we investigated whether essential tremor(More)