Franziska Hempel

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Plastids of diatoms and related algae evolved by secondary endocytobiosis, the uptake of a eukaryotic alga into a eukaryotic host cell and its subsequent reduction into an organelle. As a result diatom plastids are surrounded by four membranes. Protein targeting of nucleus encoded plastid proteins across these membranes depends on N-terminal bipartite(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum harbors a plastid that is surrounded by four membranes and evolved by way of secondary endosymbiosis. Like land plants, most of its plastid proteins are encoded as preproteins on the nuclear genome of the host cell and are resultantly redirected into the organelle. Because two more membranes are present in diatoms than(More)
Chromalveolates are a diverse group of protists that include many ecologically and medically relevant organisms such as diatoms and apicomplexan parasites. They possess plastids generally surrounded by four membranes, which evolved by engulfment of a red alga. Today, most plastid proteins must be imported, but many aspects of protein import into complex(More)
Chromalveolates like the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum arose through the uptake of a red alga by a phagotrophic protist, a process termed secondary endosymbiosis. In consequence, the plastids are surrounded by two additional membranes compared with primary plastids. This plastid morphology poses additional barriers for plastid-destined proteins, which(More)
Most of the coding capacity of primary plastids is reserved for expressing some central components of the photosynthesis machinery and the translation apparatus. Thus, for the bulk of biochemical and cell biological reactions performed within the primary plastids, many nucleus-encoded components have to be transported posttranslationally into the organelle.(More)
Many protists with high ecological and medical relevance harbor plastids surrounded by four membranes. Thus, nucleus-encoded proteins of these complex plastids have to traverse these barriers. Here we report on the identification of the protein translocators located in two of the plastid surrounding membranes and present recent findings on the mechanisms of(More)
Microalgae are thought to offer great potential as expression system for various industrial, therapeutic and diagnostic recombinant proteins as they combine high growth rates with all benefits of eukaryotic expression systems. Moreover, microalgae exhibit a phototrophic lifestyle like land plants, hence protein expression is fuelled by photosynthesis, which(More)
The regulation of pollen tube growth by the phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P(2) ) is not well understood. The Arabidopsis genome encodes two type A phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) 5-kinases, PIP5K10 and PIP5K11, which are exclusively expressed in pollen and produce PtdIns(4,5)P(2) in vitro. Fluorescence-tagged PIP5K10(More)
Plastid and mitochondrial genomes have undergone parallel evolution to encode the same functional set of genes. These encode conserved protein components of the electron transport chain in their respective bioenergetic membranes and genes for the ribosomes that express them. This highly convergent aspect of organelle genome evolution is partly explained by(More)