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In the fly Drosophila melanogaster, photoreceptor input to motion vision is split into two parallel pathways as represented by first-order interneurons L1 and L2 (Rister et al., 2007; Joesch et al., 2010). However, how these pathways are functionally specialized remains controversial. One study (Eichner et al., 2011) proposed that the L1-pathway evaluates(More)
When a service engages in multiple interactions concurrently, it is generally required to correlate incoming messages with messages previously sent or received. Features to deal with this correlation requirement have been incorporated into standards and tools for service implementation, but the supported sets of features are ad hoc as there is a lack of an(More)
A central goal in sensory neuroscience is to fully characterize a neuron's input-output relation. However, strong nonlinearities in the responses of sensory neurons have made it difficult to develop models that generalize to arbitrary stimuli. Typically, the standard linear-nonlinear models break down when neurons exhibit stimulus-dependent modulations of(More)
Optic flow based navigation is a fundamental way of visual course control described in many different species including man. In the fly, an essential part of optic flow analysis is performed in the lobula plate, a retinotopic map of motion in the environment. There, the so-called lobula plate tangential cells possess large receptive fields with different(More)
Typically, neurons in sensory areas are highly interconnected. Coupling two neurons can synchronize their activity and affect a variety of single-cell properties, such as their stimulus tuning, firing rate or gain. All of these factors must be considered to understand how two neurons should be coupled to optimally process stimuli. We quantified the(More)
  • Michal Bartnikowski, Ashwini Rahul Akkineni, Michael Gelinsky, Maria A Woodruff, Travis J Klein, T J K +1 other
  • 2016
The concept of biphasic or multi-layered compound scaffolds has been explored within numerous studies in the context of cartilage and osteochondral regeneration. To date, no system has been identified that stands out in terms of superior chondrogenesis, osteogenesis or the formation of a zone of calcified cartilage (ZCC). Herein we present a 3D plotted(More)
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a distinct brain state characterized by activated electroencephalogram and complete skeletal muscle paralysis, and is associated with vivid dreams. Transection studies by Jouvet first demonstrated that the brainstem is both necessary and sufficient for REM sleep generation, and the neural circuits in the pons have since(More)