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We simulate molecular transport in elongated hydrothermal pore systems influenced by a thermal gradient. We find extreme accumulation of molecules in a wide variety of plugged pores. The mechanism is able to provide highly concentrated single nucleotides, suitable for operations of an RNA world at the origin of life. It is driven solely by the thermal(More)
Models of transcription are often built around a picture of RNA polymerase and transcription factors (TFs) acting on a single copy of a promoter. However, most TFs are shared between multiple genes with varying binding affinities. Beyond that, genes often exist at high copy number-in multiple identical copies on the chromosome or on plasmids or viral(More)
The proteins associated with gene regulation are often shared between multiple pathways simultaneously. By way of contrast, models in regulatory biology often assume these pathways act independently. We demonstrate a framework for calculating the change in gene expression for the interacting case by decoupling repressor occupancy across the cell from the(More)
The thermal expansion of a fluid combined with a temperature-dependent viscosity introduces nonlinearities in the Navier-Stokes equations unrelated to the convective momentum current. The couplings generate the possibility for net fluid flow at the microscale controlled by external heating. This novel thermomechanical effect is investigated for a thin fluid(More)
Two differing theories aim to describe fluidic thermophoresis, the movement of particles along a temperature gradient. While thermodynamic approaches rely on local equilibrium, hydrodynamic descriptions assume a quasi-slip-flow boundary condition at the particle's surface. Evidence for slip flow is presented for the case of thermal gradients exceeding(More)
Trapping single ions under vacuum allows for precise spectroscopy in atomic physics. The confinement of biological molecules in bulk water is hindered by the lack of comparably strong forces. Molecules have been immobilized to surfaces, however often with detrimental effects on their function. Here, we optically trap molecules by creating the microscale(More)
A long standing goal is the direct optical control of biomolecules and water for applications ranging from microfluidics over biomolecule detection to non-equilibrium biophysics. Thermal forces originating from optically applied, dynamic microscale temperature gradients have shown to possess great potential to reach this goal. It was demonstrated that laser(More)
The cell is the structural and functional unit of all known living organisms. The inside of cells consists of an aqueous solution, containing all kind of interacting molecules and complex molecular machineries. Precise methods to control properties of fluids, like flow fields or the concentration of solutes would be a powerful tool for the controlled(More)
Individual regulatory proteins are typically charged with the simultaneous regulation of a battery of different genes. As a result, when one of these proteins is limiting, competitive effects have a significant impact on the transcriptional response of the regulated genes. Here we present a general framework for the analysis of any generic regulatory(More)
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