Franz Matschinsky

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The pancreatic islet β cell senses circulating levels of calorigenic nutrients to secrete insulin according to the needs of the organism. Altered insulin secretion is linked to various disorders such as diabetes, hypoglycemic states, and cardiometabolic diseases. Fuel stimuli, including glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids, promote insulin granule(More)
Glucokinase, a unique isoform of the hexokinase enzymes, which are known to phosphorylate D-glucose and other hexoses, was identified during the past three to four decades as a new, promising drug target for type 2 diabetes. Glucokinase serves as a glucose sensor of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells, controls the conversion of glucose to(More)
Mutations in the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF-4alpha) result in maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). To determine the contribution of HNF-4alpha to the maintenance of glucose homeostasis by the beta cell in vivo, we derived a conditional knockout of HNF-4alpha using the Cre-loxP system. Surprisingly, deletion of HNF-4alpha in(More)
Special features of glucose metabolism in pancreatic beta-cells are central to an understanding of the physiological role of these cells in glucose homeostasis. Several of these characteristics are emphasized: a high-capacity system for glucose transport; glucose phosphorylation by the high-Km glucokinase (GK), which is rate-limiting for glucose metabolism(More)
Glucokinase (GK) plays a key role in whole-body glucose homeostasis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of glucose in cells that express this enzyme, such as pancreatic beta cells and hepatocytes. We describe a class of antidiabetic agents that act as nonessential, mixed-type GK activators (GKAs) that increase the glucose affinity and maximum velocity (Vmax)(More)
The mechanism of insulin dysregulation in children with hyperinsulinism associated with inactivating mutations of short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) was examined in mice with a knock-out of the hadh gene (hadh(-/-)). The hadh(-/-) mice had reduced levels of plasma glucose and elevated plasma insulin levels, similar to children with SCHAD(More)
Insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells is stimulated by glucose, amino acids, and other metabolic fuels. Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) has been shown to play a regulatory role in this process. The importance of GDH was underscored by features of hyperinsulinemia/hyperammonemia syndrome, where a dominant mutation causes the loss of inhibition by GTP and(More)
This article reviews evidence for a pivotal role of glucokinase as glucose sensor of the pancreatic beta-cells. Glucokinase explains the capacity, hexose specificity, affinities, sigmoidicity, and anomeric preference of pancreatic islet glycolysis, and because stimulation of glucose metabolism is a prerequisite of glucose stimulation of insulin release,(More)
The glucose-phosphorylating enzyme glucokinase has structural, kinetic, and molecular genetic features that are ideal for its primary role as glucose sensor in a network of neuro/endocrine sentinel cells that maintain glucose homeostasis in many vertebrates including humans. The glucokinase-containing, insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas take the(More)