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We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study non-invasively changes in cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation in the frontal and parietal cortex during performance of a verbal fluency task in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whereas healthy elderly subjects (n = 19, age 67 +/- 10 years) showed increases in concentrations of oxygenated hemoglobin(More)
The pineal secretory product melatonin has, in addition to regulating retinal, circadian and vascular functions, neuroprotective effects. Blood melatonin levels are often decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressively disabling neurodegenerative disorder. In this study we provide the first immunohistochemical evidence for the localization of(More)
Melatonin is synthesized in the pineal gland and retina during the night. Retinal melatonin is believed to be involved in local cellular modulation and in regulation of light-induced entrainment of circadian rhythms. The present study provides the first immunohistochemical evidence for the localization of melatonin 1a-receptor (MT1) in human retina of aged(More)
We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to study noninvasively the influence of aging on changes in the local concentration of oxygenated hemoglobin ([HbO2]), reduced hemoglobin ([HbR]), and total hemoglobin ([HbT] = [HbR] + [HbO2]) during activation of brain function. Young subjects (n = 12; age, 28 +/- 4 years) performing calculation tasks showed an(More)
We used volumetric MRI and analysis of areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to directly compare the extent of hippocampus-amygdala formation (HAF) and corpus callosum atrophy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in different clinical stages of dementia. Based on neuropathological studies, we hypothesized that HAF atrophy,(More)
The pineal hormone melatonin has two major functions: as a transducer of the circadian day-night signal across the seasons, and as a vasoactive substance regulating cerebral circulation. The vasoconstrictive effects of melatonin have been postulated to be mediated by the melatonin 1a-receptor (MT1). The objective of this study was to provide the first(More)
Evidence suggests that amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein is a key factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and it has been recently proposed that mitochondria are involved in the biochemical pathway by which Abeta can lead to neuronal dysfunction. Here we investigated the specific effects of Abeta on mitochondrial function under physiological(More)
The aim of the present study was to identify the distribution of the second melatonin receptor (MT2) in the human hippocampus of elderly controls and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. This is the first report of immunohistochemical MT2 localization in the human hippocampus both in control and AD cases. The specificity of the MT2 antibody was ascertained by(More)
Concentrations of heavy metals, including mercury, have been shown to be altered in the brain and body fluids of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. To explore potential pathophysiological mechanisms we used an in vitro model system (SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells) and investigated the effects of inorganic mercury (HgCl2) on oxidative stress, cell cytotoxicity,(More)
Cognitive tasks involving distraction are associated with an early age-related decline in performance. Involuntary shifts in attention to irrelevant stimulus features and subsequent reorientation were studied in young and middle-aged subjects focussing on behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) measures. Subjects were asked to discriminate between(More)