In Germany, bluetongue disease had not been reported before 2006. During August 2006-August 2008, >24,000 bluetongue virus serotype 8 infections were reported, most (20,635) in 2007. In 2006 and 2007, respectively, case-fatality rates were 6.4% and 13.1% for cattle and 37.5% and 41.5% for sheep. Vaccination in 2008 decreased cases.
To identify the vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) in Germany, we monitored Culicoides spp. biting midges during April 2007-May 2008. Molecular characterization of batches of midges that tested positive for BTV suggests C. obsoletus sensu stricto as a relevant vector of bluetongue disease in central Europe.
BACKGROUND Many networks exhibit time-dependent topologies, where an edge only exists during a certain period of time. The first measurements of such networks are very recent so that a profound theoretical understanding is still lacking. In this work, we focus on the propagation properties of infectious diseases in time-dependent networks. In particular, we… (More)
A virus isolated from a Natterer's bat (Myotis nattererii) in Germany was differentiated from other lyssaviruses on the basis of the reaction pattern of a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Phylogenetic analysis supported the assumption that the isolated virus, Bokeloh bat lyssavirus, may represent a new member of the genus Lyssavirus.
Bovines are intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis hirsuta, and Sarcocystis hominis, which use canids, felids, or primates as definitive hosts, respectively. Cattle represent also intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis sinensis, but the definitive hosts of this parasite are not yet known. Sarcocystosis in cattle is frequently asymptomatic. The… (More)
To investigate whether the differences in ST observations between bacteremia and urine isolates could be attributable to differences in vir-ulence genes, VAGs of all isolates were screened by multiplex PCR. VAGs were found equally distributed across the 2 populations, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.675). Comparison of serum resistance… (More)
Invasive wildlife species have the potential to act as additional host and vector species for infectious diseases. The raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonides), a carnivore species that has its origin in Asia, was taken as an example to demonstrate biological and ecological prerequisites which enables an invasive species to occupy a new habitat permanently.… (More)
Tachyzoite clones obtained from a single Toxoplasma gondii oocyst field sample were genotyped and characterized regarding mouse virulence. PCR-RFLP genotyping of tachyzoites initially isolated from interferon-γ-knockout (GKO) mice, BALB/c mice and VERO cell culture using the nine independent, unlinked genetic markers nSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2,… (More)
To determine the effectiveness of ducks as sentinels for avian influenza virus (AIV) infection, we placed mallards in contact with wild birds at resting sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. Infections of sentinel birds with different AIV subtypes confirmed the value of such surveillance for AIV monitoring.
To the Editor: In 2011, Schmal-lenberg virus, a novel orthobunyavi-rus of the Simbu serogroup, emerged in Germany and the Netherlands and spread rapidly over large parts of central and western Europe (1–5). The infection primarily affects ruminants but affects camelids as well (1,6). So far, evidence has not shown that humans are susceptible to… (More)