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A solution of gold chloride was reduced using ultrasound irradiation to prepare metallic gold nanoparticles under conditions of microgravity and normal gravity at sea level. Particle size distributions were measured using TEM analysis. A mean particle diameter of 10 nm was obtained in microgravity while a mean diameter of 80 nm was obtained in the(More)
A simple method is described for determining the size of sonoluminescence bubbles generated by acoustic cavitation. The change in the intensity of sonoluminescence, from 4 ms pulses of 515 kHz ultrasound, as a function of the "off" time between acoustic pulses, is the basis of the method. The bubble size determined in water was in the range of 2.8-3.7 mum.
Ibuprofen (IBP) is a widely used analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug and has been found as a pollutant in aqueous environments. The sonolytic, photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic degradations of IBP in the presence of homogeneous (Fe(3+)) and heterogeneous photocatalysts (TiO(2)) were studied. When compared with sonolysis and photocatalysis, a higher(More)
Acoustic cavitation is the fundamental process responsible for the initiation of most of the sonochemical reactions in liquids. Acoustic cavitation originates from the interaction between sound waves and bubbles. In an acoustic field, bubbles can undergo growth by rectified diffusion, bubble-bubble coalescence, bubble dissolution or bubble collapse leading(More)
The rate of sonochemical reduction of Au(III) to produce Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions containing 1-propanol has been found to be strongly dependent upon the ultrasound frequency. The size and distribution of the Au nanoparticles produced can also be correlated with the rate of Au(III) reduction, which in turn is influenced by the applied frequency.(More)
Acoustic bubble-size distributions have been determined using a pulsed ultrasound method at different ultrasound powers and frequencies. It was observed that the mean bubble size increased with increasing acoustic power and decreased with increasing ultrasound frequency. It was also recognized that the mean size of bubbles emitting sonoluminescence was(More)
Mean acoustic bubble temperatures have been measured using a methyl radical recombination (MRR) method, at three ultrasound frequencies (20, 355, and 1056 kHz) in aqueous tert-butyl alcohol solutions (0-0.5 M). The method is based on yield measurements of some of the hydrocarbon products formed from the recombination of methyl radicals that are thermally(More)
The interaction between gas bubbles and ultrasound in water leads to acoustic cavitation under specific experimental conditions. Acoustic cavitation has been used in a number of areas, these include therapeutic applications, contrast imaging, synthesis of nanomaterials, production of nanoemulsions, treatment of food materials, waste-water treatment, etc. In(More)
Mean acoustic cavitation bubble temperatures have been measured in a series of aqueous solutions containing C(1)-C(5) aliphatic alcohols, at 355 kHz. The method relies on the distribution of hydrocarbon product yields produced from the recombination of methyl radicals generated on the thermal decomposition of the alcohols. The mean bubble temperature was(More)
The effect that surface-active solutes, such as aliphatic alcohols and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), have on the extent of bubble coalescence in liquids under different sonication conditions has been investigated by measuring the volume change of the solution following a period of sonication. In general, the adsorption of surface-active solutes onto the(More)