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Fifty-seven IgG monoclonal anti-D antibodies were evaluated in the Rh flow cytometry section, in which 12 laboratories participated. Staining protocols and a fluorescein (FITC)-conjugated Fab fragment goat anti-human IgG (H + L) as a secondary antibody were recommended but not mandatory. A CcDEe red blood cell (RBC) sample that was shown to be homozygous(More)
BACKGROUND Current estimates of blood group frequencies in Germany were often derived from studies involving less than 12,000 individuals. The frequency of the D category VI was unknown. METHODS ABO. Kell, and Rhesus blood group data of more than 600,000 donors were reviewed. Allele frequencies were derived by the maximum-likelihood method. The frequency(More)
BACKGROUND Current DNA-based Rh system typing strategies may detect the two RH genes and their prevalent alleles, but they are known to fail sometimes, when rare RH alleles (e.g., D category phenotypes) are encountered. It is almost impossible to find a single DNA-based method that can accommodate the great heterogeneity within the human Rh system. STUDY(More)
A Rhesus D (RhD) red blood cell phenotype with a weak expression of the D antigen occurs in 0.2% to 1% of whites and is called weak D, formerly Du. Red blood cells of weak D phenotype have a much reduced number of presumably complete D antigens that were repeatedly reported to carry the amino acid sequence of the regular RhD protein. The molecular cause of(More)
Rhesus D category VI (DVI) is the clinically most important partial D. DVI red blood cells were assumed to possess very low RhD antigen density and to be caused by two RHD-CE-D hybrid alleles. Because there was no population-based work-up, we screened three populations in central Europe for DVI. Twenty-six DVI samples were detected and examined by(More)
The discovery of Rh partial D variant red cells by discrepant reactions with different monoclonal anti-D has demonstrated the range of Rh D epitopes that have arisen due to alterations in Rh D protein structure. There are two current classification systems, one which uses a nine epitope model (epD1-epD9) whereas a more recent model proposes 30 different(More)
The complexity of the RHD and RHCE genes, which is the greatest of all blood group systems, confounds analysis at the molecular level. RH DNA typing was introduced in 1993 and has been applied to prenatal testing. PCR-SSP analysis covering multiple polymorphisms was recently introduced for the screening and initial characterization of partial D. Our(More)
BACKGROUND The D antigen includes category D, partial D, and weak D types, which are important because anti-D alloimmunization can occur in some but not all persons that express a variant RHD allele. At present, there is little prospective information on the prevalence of D variants among obstetric patients and potential transfusion recipients. STUDY(More)
BACKGROUND DNA sequencing showed RHD mutations for all weak D phenotypes investigated in a study from Southwestern Germany. Molecular classification of weak D offers a more reliable basis than serotyping and is relevant for optimal D transfusion strategies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Sequence-specific primers were designed to detect weak D types 1 to 5 and(More)