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One of the primary concerns related to the adoption of insect resistant trans-genic plants in the environment is the detrimental effect that these may pose on non-target organisms, including entomophagous arthropods (parasitoids and predators) which have an important function in regulating pests. Despite the fact that regulatory bodies require information(More)
Scientific studies are frequently used to support policy decisions related to transgenic crops. Schmidt et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:221-228 (2009) recently reported that Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb were toxic to larvae of Adalia bipunctata in direct feeding studies. This study was quoted, among others, to justify the ban of Bt maize (MON 810) in Germany.(More)
It is commonly held that confined field trials (CFTs) used to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts of a genetically engineered (GE) plant should be conducted in each country where cultivation is intended, even when relevant and potentially sufficient data are already available from studies conducted elsewhere. The acceptance of data(More)
Worldwide, plants obtained through genetic modification are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market. An area of concern addressed in environmental risk assessments is the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to adversely affect non-target arthropods and the valued ecosystem services they provide.(More)
In order to assess the risk that insecticidal transgenic plants may pose for bumblebees, we tested whether Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers are able to detect insecticidal proteins dissolved in sucrose solution and whether consumption of these proteins will affect survival and offspring production. Feeders containing either Bacillus(More)
A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt(More)
The regulation of import and release of invertebrate biological control agents is not harmonized yet in Europe. Each country has its own regulatory system in place that is legally based on either the nature protection and/or the Plant Protection Act. The publication of the FAO Code of Conduct in 1996 for import and release of exotic biological control(More)
Apple crop protection mainly relies on pesticides although several alternative pest management strategies being available. This is largely caused by the problem that multiple environmental and economic aspects are to consider simultaneously, hiding if one strategy is more sustainable than another. In our study we investigated the elements that need to be(More)
Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Cry1Ab) has no direct effect on larvae of the green lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) Abstract Earlier studies have shown that larvae of the green lacewing predator Chrysoperla carnea are negatively affected when preying on lepidopteran larvae that had been fed with transgenic maize expressing the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus(More)
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