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The area devoted to growing transgenic plants expressing insecticidal Cry proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is increasing worldwide. A major concern with the adoption of Bt crops is their potential impact on nontarget organisms including biological control organisms. Regulatory frameworks should advocate a step-wise (tiered) approach to(More)
In this study, the effects of the Bt-toxin Cry1Ab and a soybean trypsin inhibitor (SBTI) on intestinal bacterial communities of adult honeybees (Apis mellifera) were investigated. It was hypothesized that changes in intestinal bacterial communities of honeybees may represent a sensitive indicator for altered intestinal physiology. Honeybees were fed in a(More)
More than 5000 introductions of about 2000 species of exotic arthropod agents for control of arthropod pests in 196 countries or islands during the past 120 years rarely have resulted in negative environmental effects. Yet, risks of environmental effects caused by releases of exotics are of growing concern. Twenty countries have implemented regulations for(More)
An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses(More)
A major concern regarding the deployment of insect resistant transgenic plants is their potential impact on non-target organisms, in particular on beneficial arthropods such as predators. To assess the risks that transgenic plants pose to predators, various experimental testing systems can be used. When using tritrophic studies, it is important to verify(More)
One of the primary concerns related to theadoption of insect resistant transgenic plantsin the environment is the detrimental effectthat these may pose on non-target organisms,including entomophagous arthropods (parasitoidsfand predators) which have an important functionin regulating pests. Despite the fact thatregulatory bodies require information(More)
The worldwide commercial cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops has raised concerns about potential adverse effects on the environment resulting from the use of these crops. Consequently, the risks of GM crops for the environment, and especially for biodiversity, have been extensively assessed before and during their commercial cultivation.(More)
The side effect of 10 insecticides, 5 fungicides and 5 herbicides on 24 different species of beneficial organisms was tested by members of the Working Group ‘Pesticides and Beneficial Organisms’ of the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC), West Palaearctic Regional Section (WPRS). The tests were conducted by 32 members in 12 countries(More)
In the past 100 years many exotic naturalenemies have been imported, mass reared andreleased as biological control agents. Negativeenvironmental effects of these releases haverarely been reported. The current popularity ofinundative biological control may, however,result in problems, as an increasing number ofactivities will be executed by persons(More)
The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of(More)