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A major concern regarding the deployment of insect resistant transgenic plants is their potential impact on non-target organisms, in particular on beneficial arthropods such as predators. To assess the risks that transgenic plants pose to predators, various experimental testing systems can be used. When using tritrophic studies, it is important to verify(More)
Earlier studies have shown that larvae of the green lacewing predator Chrysoperla carnea are negatively affected when preying on lepidopteran larvae that had been fed with transgenic maize expressing the cry1Ab gene from Bacillus thuringiensis. To test whether the observed effects were directly caused by the Cry1Ab toxin, we have developed a bioassay which(More)
Scientific studies are frequently used to support policy decisions related to transgenic crops. Schmidt et al., Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 56:221-228 (2009) recently reported that Cry1Ab and Cry3Bb were toxic to larvae of Adalia bipunctata in direct feeding studies. This study was quoted, among others, to justify the ban of Bt maize (MON 810) in Germany.(More)
As we described in our rebuttal in Transgenic Research (Shelton et al. 2009), we think that the meta-analysis approach used by Lö vei et al. (2009) suffers from important methodological limitations relative to risk assessment that led them to reach conclusions that are in conßict with those of several recent comprehensive reviews and meta-analyses about the(More)
Worldwide, plants obtained through genetic modification are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market. An area of concern addressed in environmental risk assessments is the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to adversely affect non-target arthropods and the valued ecosystem services they provide.(More)
In order to assess the risk that insecticidal transgenic plants may pose for bumblebees, we tested whether Bombus terrestris (L.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers are able to detect insecticidal proteins dissolved in sucrose solution and whether consumption of these proteins will affect survival and offspring production. Feeders containing either Bacillus(More)
It is commonly held that confined field trials (CFTs) used to evaluate the potential adverse environmental impacts of a genetically engineered (GE) plant should be conducted in each country where cultivation is intended, even when relevant and potentially sufficient data are already available from studies conducted elsewhere. The acceptance of data(More)
A concern with Bt-transgenic insect-resistant plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms. Early studies reported that Cry1Ab-producing Bt maize and purified Cry1Ab harmed larvae of the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea. Although these effects could not be confirmed in subsequent studies, some authors still refer to them as evidence that Bt(More)
Early-tier studies are the initial step in the environmental risk assessment of genetically engineered plants on nontarget arthropods. They are conducted in the laboratory where surrogate species are exposed to higher concentrations of the arthropod-active compound than those expected to occur in the Þeld. Thus, early-tier tests provide robust data and(More)
The regulation of import and release of invertebrate biological control agents is not harmonized yet in Europe. Each country has its own regulatory system in place that is legally based on either the nature protection and/or the Plant Protection Act. The publication of the FAO Code of Conduct in 1996 for import and release of exotic biological control(More)