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Soleus muscle atrophy was induced by hindlimb unloading of male Sprague-Dawley rats (305 +/- 15 g) for 4, 7, and 10-14 days. Controls (291 +/- 14 g) were housed in vivarium cages. Soleus electromyogram (EMG) activity was recorded before and during tail suspension. Unloading caused progressive reduction in the muscle-to-body weight ratio. After 14 days, type(More)
Spacelab Life Sciences-1 and -2 provided skeletal muscles from rats dissected in flight for the first time and 2 h to 14 days postflight. The muscles permitted the distinguishing of primary adaptations to microgravity from secondary reloading-induced alterations. In microgravity, rats adopted bipedal forelimb locomotion with the hindlimbs relegated to(More)
Histochemical and ultrastructural analyses were performed postflight on hind limb skeletal muscles of rats orbited for 12.5 days aboard the unmanned Cosmos 1887 biosatellite and returned to Earth 2 days before sacrifice. The antigravity adductor longus (AL), soleus, and plantaris muscles atrophied more than the non-weight-bearing extensor digitorum longus,(More)
Spaceflight (flight) and tail suspension-hindlimb unloading (unloaded) produced significant decreases in fiber cross-sectional areas of the adductor longus (AL), a slow-twitch antigravity muscle. However, the mean wet weight of the flight AL muscles was near normal, whereas that of the suspension unloaded AL muscles was significantly reduced. Interstitial(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), also known as glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), is generally recognized as a diagnostic and therapeutic cancer antigen and a molecular address for targeted imaging and drug delivery studies. Due to its significance in cancer research, numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against GCPII have been(More)
Prolonged exposure of humans to hypogravity causes weakening of their skeletal muscles. This problem was studied in rats exposed to hypogravity for 7 days aboard Spacelab 3. Hindlimb muscles were harvested 12-16 hours postflight for histochemical, biochemical, and ultrastructural analyses. The majority of the soleus and extensor digitorum longus fibers(More)
We hypothesized that hindlimb suspension unloading of 8-day-old neonatal rats would disrupt the normal development of muscle fiber types and the motor innervation of the antigravity (weightbearing) soleus muscles but not extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Five rats were suspended 4.5 h and returned 1.5 h to the dam for nursing on a 24 h cycle for 9(More)
Core-shell nanoparticles based on fluorescent nanodiamonds coated with a biocompatible N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide copolymer shell were developed for background-free near-infrared imaging of cancer cells. The particles showed excellent colloidal stability in buffers and culture media. After conjugation with a cyclic RGD peptide they selectively(More)
Antibodies are indispensable tools for biomedicine and anticancer therapy. Nevertheless, their use is compromised by high production costs, limited stability, and difficulty of chemical modification. The design and preparation of synthetic polymer conjugates capable of replacing antibodies in biomedical applications such as ELISA, flow cytometry,(More)
Although Ddi1-like proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, their biological functions remain poorly characterized. Yeast Ddi1 has been implicated in cell cycle regulation, DNA-damage response, and exocytosis. By virtue of its ubiquitin-like (UBL) and ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains, it has been proposed to serve as a proteasomal shuttle factor. All(More)