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The Lake Victoria fish fauna included an endemic cichlid flock of more than 300 species. To boost fisheries, Nile perch (Lates sp.) was introduced into the lake in the 1950s. In the early 1980s an explosive increase of this predator was observed. Simultaneously, catches of haplochromines decreased. This paper describes the species composition of(More)
O environmental degradation, and redistribution of surface water have placed great stress on inland fisheries throughout the world. Human activities usually shift the balance among fish species, causing the extirpation of many indigenous species and the dominance of a reduced set of often introduced fish species. The result has been a massive reshaping of(More)
In this study we report the first animal invasion, to our knowledge, into Lake Malawi. The colonizer is a non-native morph of the gastropod Melanoides tuberculata that differs substantially in external shell characters from co-occurring indigenous forms. However, because the species possesses extensive within-Africa geographical variation in shell(More)
a In the 1980s an explosive increase o f the introduced Nile perch (Iates sp.; Harrison 1991) in Lake Victoria caused the destruction o f approximately 65% of the endemic haplochromine cichlid~ The eradication o f approximately 200 vertebrate species in less than a decade may well represent the largest extinction event among vertebrates during this century.(More)
Nile perch, a large predatory fish, was introduced into Lake Victoria in 1954. The upsurge of Nile perch in Lake Victoria was first observed in the Nyanza Gulf, Kenya, in 1979. In Ugandan waters this occurred 2–3 years later and in the Tanzanian Mwanza Gulf 4–5 years later. At the beginning of the upsurge in the Mwanza Gulf in 1983/1984 only sub-adult and(More)
F. Witte1, B.S. Msuku2, J.H. Wanink1, O. Seehausen1,3, E.F.B. Katunzi2, P.C. Goudswaard1 & T. Goldschmidt1 1Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, University of Leiden, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands (E-mail: Witte@rulsfb.leidenuniv.nl); 2Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, Mwanza Centre, P.O. Box 475, Mwanza, Tanzania;(More)
Rapid morphological changes in response to fluctuating natural environments are a common phenomenon in species that undergo adaptive radiation. The dramatic ecological changes in Lake Victoria provide a unique opportunity to study environmental effects on cichlid morphology. This study shows how four haplochromine cichlids adapted their premaxilla to a(More)
Many advanced snakes use fangs-specialized teeth associated with a venom gland-to introduce venom into prey or attacker. Various front- and rear-fanged groups are recognized, according to whether their fangs are positioned anterior (for example cobras and vipers) or posterior (for example grass snakes) in the upper jaw. A fundamental controversy in snake(More)
Basic research in pattern formation is concerned with the generation of phenotypes and tissues. It can therefore lead to new tools for medical research. These include phenotypic screening assays, applications in tissue engineering, as well as general advances in biomedical knowledge. Our aim here is to discuss this emerging field with special reference to(More)
Fresh waters are among the most seriously threatened ecosystems on the planet, having suffered intense human impacts over the past century (SALA et al. 2000, COWX & COLLARESPEREIRA 2002, DUDGEON et al. 2005). In their direct comparison of rates of species loss in freshwater vs. terrestrial ecosystems, RICCIARDI & RASMUSSEN (1999) projected a future(More)