Frans B . M . de Waal

Learn More
Evidence is presented that the reciprocal exchange of social services among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) rests on cognitive abilities that allow current behavior to be contingent upon a history of interaction. Food sharing within a captive colony of chimpanzees was studied by means of 200 food trials, conducted on separate days over a 3-year period, in(More)
Our understanding of social communication and emotional behavior in nonhuman primates has advanced considerably through research over the past half century. Chimpanzee facial displays have typically been described as highly graded communicative signals, but we propose an additional distinction: blended displays. They appear to be morphologically and(More)
Affiliative postconflict reunions—reconciliations—of former opponents were first demonstrated in the chimpanzees at the Arnhem Zoo. Since then methods have been considerably refined, and reconciliation has been demonstrated in a large number of primates and also some gregarious nonprimates. This study, conducted with a different captive group, is the first(More)
Prosocial decisions may lead to unequal payoffs among group members. Although an aversion to inequity has been found in empirical studies of both human and nonhuman primates, the contexts previously studied typically do not involve a trade-off between prosociality and inequity. Here we investigate the apparent coexistence of these two factors, specifically(More)
Brown capuchins give distinct calls upon encountering food. Based on studies on other species that point at divisibility of food and audience as critical variables, we predicted that capuchins would adjust their food calling for both the amount of food and the nature of their audience. We predicted that the foodassociated call serves to attract conspecifics(More)