Franklin W. Mosha

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BACKGROUND Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was first introduced for treatment of malaria in Africa during the early 1980s for cases when chloroquine treatment failed, and has since become the first-line treatment in many countries. Resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is now increasing, especially in southeast Africa. METHODS We characterised genetic change(More)
The antimalarial combination of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine (SP) was introduced as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in Tanzania during 2001 following 18 years of second-line use. The genetic determinants of in vitro resistance to the two drugs individually are shown to be point mutations at seven sites in the dihydrofolate reductase gene(More)
BACKGROUND P. falciparum gametocytes may persist after treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) plus artesunate (AS) and contribute considerably to malaria transmission. We determined the efficacy of SP+AS plus a single dose of primaquine (PQ, 0.75 mg/kg) on clearing gametocytaemia measured by molecular methods. METHODOLOGY The study was conducted(More)
Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with(More)
Development of resistance to different classes of insecticides is a potential threat to malaria control. With the increasing coverage of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets in Tanzania, the continued monitoring of resistance in vector populations is crucial. It may facilitate the development of novel strategies to prevent or minimize the spread of(More)
Malaria vector Anopheles and other mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) were monitored for 12 months during 1994-95 in villages of Lower Moshi irrigation area (37 degrees 20' E, 3 degrees 21' S; approximately 700 m a.s.l.) south of Mount Kilimanjaro in northern Tanzania. Adult mosquito populations were sampled fortnightly by five methods: human bait collection(More)
BACKGROUND Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) a widely used treatment for uncomplicated malaria and recommended for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, is being investigated for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi). High levels of drug resistance to SP have been reported from north-eastern Tanzania associated(More)
BACKGROUND Administration of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at times of vaccination-intermittent preventive treatment in infants (IPTi)-is a promising strategy to prevent malaria. However, rising resistance to this combination is a concern. We investigated a shortacting and longacting antimalarial drug as alternative regimens for IPTi. METHODS We undertook a(More)
INTRODUCTION High coverage of conventional and long-lasting insecticide treated nets (ITNs and LLINs) in parts of E Africa are associated with reductions in local malaria burdens. Shifts in malaria vector species ratio have coincided with the scale-up suggesting that some species are being controlled by ITNs/LLINs better than others. METHODS Between(More)
BACKGROUND Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) of houses provide effective malaria transmission control. There is conflicting evidence about whether it is more beneficial to provide both interventions in combination. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted to investigate whether the combination provides added(More)