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BACKGROUND Anxiety and depression contribute to poor disease outcomes among individuals with diabetes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression and to identify their associated factors including metabolic components among people with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional, multi-center study in four out-patient(More)
A structured questionnaire on knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding diabetes was administered to 199 persons with diabetes (92.5% type 2) attending the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Mean age [standard deviation (SD)] was 53 (11) years. Mean duration of diabetes (SD) was 8 (7) years in men and 9 (6) years in women. Men had a significantly(More)
OBJECTIVE Inadequate water and sanitation services adversely affect the health and socioeconomic development of communities. The Water and Sanitation Extension Programme (WASEP) project, undertaken in selected villages in northern Pakistan between 1997 and 2001, was designed to deliver an integrated package of activities to improve potable water supply at(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to identify and measure the risk factors differentiating upper respiratory infection from pneumonia. METHODS The World Health Organization's acute respiratory infection case management criteria were used. We studied 259 cases of pneumonia (cases) and 187 cases of 'cough and cold' (controls) among children under 5 years(More)
OBJECTIVE Cardiovascular risks are globally elevated in South Asians, but this masks important ethnic subgroup differences in risk factors, such as hypertension, which have not been fully explored. We conducted this study to explore the variations in hypertension within ethnic subgroups among South Asians. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey [National Health(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the risk factors for premature myocardial infarction among young South Asians. DESIGN AND SETTING Case-control study in a hospital admitting unselected patients with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND SUBJECTS Risk factor assessment was done in 193 subjects aged 15-45 years with a first acute myocardial infarct,(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of pneumonia and severe pneumonia among children living at high altitudes in Pakistan. METHODS A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in which 99 female government health workers in Punial and Ishkoman valleys (Ghizer district, Northern Areas of Pakistan) enrolled children at home, conducted home visits every 2(More)
OBJECTIVES To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi. METHODS A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre,(More)
AIMS To study the within ethnic subgroup variations in diabetes and central obesity among South Asians. METHODS Data from 9442 individuals age > or = 15 years from the National Health Survey of Pakistan (NHSP) (1990-1994) were analysed. Diabetes was defined as non-fasting blood glucose > or = 7.8 mmol/l, or known history of diabetes. Central obesity was(More)
The objective of this paper is to review capture-recapture (CR) methodology and its usefulness in epidemiology. Capture-recapture is an established and well-accepted sampling tool in wildlife studies, and it has been proposed as a cost-effective demographic technique for conducting censuses. However, the application of CR in the field of epidemiology(More)