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Activation of c-Jun amino kinase (JNK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and the transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) drives renal inflammation and fibrosis. However, the upstream MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) enzyme(s) that activate these pathways in kidney disease are unknown. We determined the role of one candidate MAP3K enzyme,(More)
Renal fibrosis and tubular apoptosis are common mechanisms of progressive kidney disease. In vitro studies have implicated the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in these processes. Both of the major JNK isoforms, JNK1 and JNK2, are expressed in the kidney, but their relative contribution to JNK signaling is unknown. This study investigated the role(More)
Stress-activated kinases p38 MAPK and JNK promote renal fibrosis; however, how the pathways by which these kinases are activated in kidney disease remain poorly defined. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1/MAPKKK5) is a member of the MAPKKK family that can induce activation of p38 and JNK. The present study examined whether ASK1 induces p38/JNK(More)
Clinical and experimental studies have shown that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists substantially reduce kidney injury. However, the specific cellular targets and mechanisms by which MR antagonists protect against kidney injury must be identified. We used conditional gene deletion of MR signaling in myeloid cells (MR(flox/flox) LysM(Cre) mice;(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Tissue macrophage accumulation is thought to induce insulin resistance during obesity and stimulate the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent stimulator of macrophage recruitment. It is increased in adipose tissue during obesity and in diabetic kidneys, suggesting that inflammation of(More)
Two major stress-activated protein kinases are the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the c-Jun amino terminal kinase (JNK). p38 and JNK are widely expressed in different cell types in various tissues and can be activated by a diverse range of stimuli. Signaling through p38 and JNK is critical for embryonic development. In adult kidney, p38 and(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Obesity and diabetes are associated with increased intracellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling, which may promote tissue inflammation and injury. Activation of p38 MAPK can be induced by either of the immediate upstream kinases, MAP kinase kinase (MKK)3 or MKK6, and recent evidence suggests that MKK3 has(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyse the neointimal coverage of sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) and bare-metal stent (BMS) visualised in vivo by optical coherence tomography (OCT). METHODS OCT images were obtained in 26 coronary vessels of 24 patients at 5-93 months after SES or BMS deployment. The short-term BMS group (BMS1) consisted of eight BMS in seven patients at(More)
Prolactin secretion from the anterior pituitary is tightly regulated by feedback onto the hypothalamic neuroendocrine dopaminergic (NEDA) neurons. Prolactin stimulates these neurons to synthesize and secrete dopamine, which acts via the pituitary portal vasculature to inhibit prolactin secretion from the pituitary lactotrophs. Despite the physiological(More)
BACKGROUND Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) is an important factor in delayed graft function in renal transplantation and is a determinant of long-term graft outcome. This study examined the role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling in human and experimental renal I/R injury. METHODS Biopsies obtained 15-20 min after reperfusion of human renal(More)