Frank Winkler

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Brain metastasis frequently occurs in individuals with cancer and is often fatal. We used multiphoton laser scanning microscopy to image the single steps of metastasis formation in real time. Thus, it was possible to track the fate of individual metastasizing cancer cells in vivo in relation to blood vessels deep in the mouse brain over minutes to months.(More)
The recent landmark Phase III clinical trial with a VEGF-specific antibody suggests that antiangiogenic therapy must be combined with cytotoxic therapy for the treatment of solid tumors. However, there are no guidelines for optimal scheduling of these therapies. Here we show that VEGFR2 blockade creates a "normalization window"--a period during which(More)
Elevated interstitial fluid pressure, a hallmark of solid tumors, can compromise the delivery of therapeutics to tumors. Here we show that blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling by DC101 (a VEGF-receptor-2 antibody) decreases interstitial fluid pressure, not by restoring lymphatic function, but by producing a morphologically and(More)
Gliomas are the most common primary tumours of the central nervous system, with nearly 15,000 diagnosed annually in the United States and a lethality approaching 80% within the first year of glioblastoma diagnosis. The marked induction of angiogenesis in glioblastomas suggests that it is a necessary part of malignant progression; however, the precise(More)
The present study assessed the role of PARP [poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) polymerase] activation in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. Mice with a targeted disruption of the PARP 1 gene were protected against meningitis-associated central nervous system complications including blood-brain barrier breaching and increase in intracranial pressure.(More)
Astrocytic brain tumours, including glioblastomas, are incurable neoplasms characterized by diffusely infiltrative growth. Here we show that many tumour cells in astrocytomas extend ultra-long membrane protrusions, and use these distinct tumour microtubes as routes for brain invasion, proliferation, and to interconnect over long distances. The resulting(More)
PURPOSE Bevacizumab targets VEGF-A and has proved beneficial in glioma patients, improving clinical symptoms by the reduction of tumor edema. However, it remains controversial whether or not bevacizumab exerts antitumor effects in addition to (and potentially independent of) its effects on tumor vessels, and it is unknown what doses are needed to achieve(More)
Infiltration of cancer cells into normal tissue is a hallmark of malignant gliomas and compromises treatment options. A lack of appropriate models limits the study of this invasion in vivo, which makes it difficult to fully understand its anatomy and the role of dynamic interactions with structures of the normal brain. We developed a novel methodology by(More)
A hypoxic microenvironment induces resistance to alkylating agents by activating targets in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The molecular mechanisms involved in this mTOR-mediated hypoxia-induced chemoresistance, however, are unclear. Here we identify the mTOR target N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) as a key determinant of(More)
The aim of the study was to determine the differential expression of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoforms and the pathophysiologic relevance of inducible NOS (iNOS) in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. By use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting, increased brain mRNA and increased(More)