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CONTEXT Hypothetically, topiramate can improve drinking outcomes among alcohol-dependent individuals by reducing alcohol's reinforcing effects through facilitation of gamma-aminobutyric acid function and inhibition of glutaminergic pathways in the corticomesolimbic system. OBJECTIVE To determine if topiramate is a safe and efficacious treatment for(More)
Sublethal ischemia leads to increased tolerance against subsequent prolonged cerebral ischemia in vivo. In the present study we modeled preconditioning mechanisms in a neuronal-enriched culture. Damage was significantly reduced (up to 72%) with 1.5 h of oxygen-glucose deprivation 48-72 h before 3 h oxygen-glucose deprivation. Tolerance was also elicited by(More)
The authors show that the inhibitor of the succinate dehydrogenase, 3-nitroproprionic acid (3-NPA), which in high doses and with chronic administration is a neurotoxin, can induce profound tolerance to focal cerebral ischemia in the rat when administered in a single dose (20 mg/kg) 3 days before ischemia. Infarcts were approximately 70% and 35% smaller in(More)
OBJECTIVES The purposes of this review were to assess the efficacy of topiramate as monotherapy for epilepsy and migraine prevention, describe how it should be used, and give clinical advice on how to manage the practical aspects of dosing, titration, and possible adverse events in these 2 indications. METHODS We searched the PubMed and BIOSIS databases(More)
The authors investigated the time course of leukocyte infiltration compared with microglial activation in adult rat brain slices after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). To distinguish peripheral leukocytes from microglia, the blood cells were prelabeled in vivo with Rhodamine 6G (Rhod6G) i.v. before induction of ischemia. At specific times(More)
BACKGROUND Topiramate can improve drinking outcomes via a hypothesized mechanism of facilitating gamma-aminobutyric acid function and inhibiting glutaminergic pathways in the corticomesolimbic system. We sought to determine whether topiramate's antidrinking effects are bolstered by improvements in physical and psychosocial well-being. METHODS In a(More)
We applied serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) to study differentially expressed genes in mouse brain 14 hr after the induction of focal cerebral ischemia. Analysis of >60,000 transcripts revealed 83 upregulated and 94 downregulated transcripts (more than or equal to eightfold). Reproducibility was demonstrated by performing SAGE in duplicate on the(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety and to explore the dose response of esketamine intravenous (IV) infusion in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). METHODS This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 30 patients with TRD. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive an(More)
SV129 or C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO, 5 days, 1 h every day, 100% O(2) at 3 atm absolute). One day after the 5th HBO session focal cerebral ischemia was induced. In SV129 mice, HBO induced tolerance against permanent focal cerebral ischemia (n=42, mean infarct volume reduction 27%, P=0.001), but not against transient (30 or 60(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate topiramate (TPM) and phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy following rapid oral initiation in new-onset epilepsy. METHODS Randomized, double-blind, 28-day trial of TPM (100 mg/day beginning on day 1) versus PHT (1,000 mg on day 1 followed by 300 mg/day maintenance dosing) in 261 patients with new-onset epilepsy. The primary end point was time to(More)