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Over the period from 1979 to 2001, tropospheric trends derived from a widely cited analysis of the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) temperature record show little or no warming, while surface temperature trends based on in situ observations show a pronounced warming of ;0.2 K decade21. This discrepancy between trends at the surface and in the upper atmosphere(More)
Climate models and satellite observations both indicate that the total amount of water in the atmosphere will increase at a rate of 7% per kelvin of surface warming. However, the climate models predict that global precipitation will increase at a much slower rate of 1 to 3% per kelvin. A recent analysis of satellite observations does not support this(More)
We provide a new fit for the microwave complex dielectric constant of water in the salinity range between 0–40 ppt using two Debye relaxation wavelengths. For pure water, the fit is based on laboratory measurements in the temperature range between 20 C and +40 C including supercooled water and for frequencies up to 500 GHz. For sea water, our fit is valid(More)
Satellite measurements of surface wind stress from the QuikSCAT scatterometer and sea surface temperature (SST) from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager are analyzed for the three-month period 21 July–20 October 1999 to investigate ocean–atmosphere coupling in the eastern tropical Pacific. Oceanic tropical instability waves (TIWs) with(More)
Satellite-based measurements of decadal-scale temperature change in the lower troposphere have indicated cooling relative to Earth's surface in the tropics. Such measurements need a diurnal correction to prevent drifts in the satellites' measurement time from causing spurious trends. We have derived a diurnal correction that, in the tropics, is of the(More)
Three post-launch calibration methods are used to examine the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) microwave imager (TMI) on-orbit performance. The first method is a statistical analysis of TMI ocean observations that reveals a systematic along-scan error. The second method is an intercomparison of TMI and SSM/I observations that shows a warm bias in(More)
We present a model function for the emissivity of the wind roughened ocean surface for microwave frequencies between 6 and 90 GHz. It is an update, refinement, and extension of model functions we had developed previously. The basis of our analysis are brightness temperature (TB) measurements from the spaceborne microwave radiometer WindSat and the Special(More)
The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, and applications of these results to areas such as(More)
We analyze the wind direction signal for vertically ( ) and horizontally ( ) polarized microwave radiation at 37 GHz, 19 GHz, and 11 GHz and an Earth incidence angle of 53 . We use brightness temperatures from SSM/I and TMI and wind vectors from buoys and the QUIKSCAT scatterometer. The wind vectors are space and time collocated with the radiometer(More)