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Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used urinary tract antibiotic that has been found at high concentrations in human milk. In vivo studies in rats were carried out to determine the mechanism by which this drug crosses the mammary epithelium. Lactating rats were gavage-fed with nitrofurantoin, and their milk and plasma levels of the antibiotic were measured at(More)
Methylene chloride has been the subject of recent toxicological and carcinogenesis studies because of significant human exposure and widespread use in industrial processing, food preparation and agriculture. In this study, liver and lung tumors, induced in female B6C3F1 mice by inhalation of 2000 p.p.m. methylene chloride (6 h/day, 5 days/week continuous(More)
Methylene chloride is a high production chemical used in a variety of applications resulting in estimated occupational and consumer exposures of at least one million people per day. Results of previously reported chronic evaluations of inhaled methylene chloride indicated that it caused mammary tumors in Fischer 344 rats and neoplasia in the lungs and liver(More)
Studies were undertaken to compare outcomes when four chemicals were evaluated under typical NTP bioassay conditions as well as by protocols employing dietary restriction. Four chemicals, using three different routes of exposure (in utero [accomplished by feeding the dam dosed feed], dosed feed, and gavage) were used to 1) evaluate the effect of diet(More)
Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of 2 structurally-related p-phenylenediamines, HC Blue No. 1, and HC Blue No. 2 were conducted by administering each chemical in feed for 103 weeks to both sexes of Fischer 344/N rats and B6C3F1 (C57BL/6N x C3H/HEN) mice. Diets containing 0, 1500, or 3000 ppm HC Blue 1 were fed to male and female rats and male mice;(More)
Diet contributes to over one-third of cancer deaths in the Western world, yet the factors in the diet that influence cancer are not elucidated. A reduction in caloric intake dramatically slows cancer progression in rodents, and this may be a major contribution to dietary effects on cancer. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is lowered during dietary(More)
A leukemia cell transplant model and both in situ and in vitro bioassays were used to assess the roles of endogenous factors in mediating diet restriction (DR)-induced inhibition of mononuclear cell leukemia (MNCL) in Fischer 344 rats. DR-treated male rats (n = 35), which were fed 75% of ad libitum (AL) intake of NIH-07 open formula diet, had lower(More)
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) modulates apoptosis in human breast cancer cells, HBL100, induced by diverse chemotherapeutic drugs. IGF-1 increased cell survival of HBL100 cells treated with 5-fluorouracil (antimetabolite), methotrexate (antimetabolite), tamoxifen (antiestrogen/antiproliferative), or(More)
This paper focuses on the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its associated regulatory apparatus as a key endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine signalling system involved in mediating the anti-carcinogenic activity of dietary restriction. Literature is reviewed showing that the inhibitory action of dietary restriction on carcinogenesis is global(More)