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Reviewers The Publications Committee of the American Physiological Society gratefully acknowledges the services of the following reviewers who assisted the Editorial Board in the reviews of manuscripts. I would like to recommend that our library subscribe to the American Journal of Physiology–Cell Physiology. This is a journal published online and in print(More)
Introduction The major goals of physiology as conceptualized by Guyton & Hall (1996) are to better explain the physical and chemical factors responsible for the origin, development and progression of life. This review will contrast exercise-deficient states (as seen in the present day sedentary individuals having little leisure-time or occupational physical(More)
Voluntary physical activity and exercise training can favorably influence brain plasticity by facilitating neurogenerative, neuroadaptive, and neuroprotective processes. At least some of the processes are mediated by neurotrophic factors. Motor skill training and regular exercise enhance executive functions of cognition and some types of learning, including(More)
The purpose of the study was to note whether insulin-like growth factor (IGF) immunoreactivity increased after eccentric contractions. IGF immunoreactivity in the rat tibialis anterior muscle was measured on 5 successive days (4-5 rats/group, n = 28) after an acute bout of 192 eccentric contractions elicited by electrical stimulation. The muscle tissue(More)
Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology.—In this review, we develop a blueprint for exercise biology research in the new millennium. The first part of our plan provides statistics to support the contention that there has been an epidemic emergence of modern chronic diseases in the latter part of the 20th century.(More)
This study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between physical performance capacity and the mitochondrial content of skeletal muscle. Four groups of rats were trained by means of treadmill running 5 days/wk for 13 wk. One group ran 10 min/day, a second group ran 30 min/day, a third group ran 60 min/day, and a fourth group ran 120 min/day. The(More)
The immobilization of limbs resulted in atrophy of those muscles that are fixed either at or less than resting length. The loss in protein in these muscles can be described by a first-order equation. Decreases in protein synthesis rate in muscles of immobilized limbs occur during the first 6 h of immobilization, and this decrease probably played a role in(More)
Currently our society is faced with the challenge of understanding the biological basis for the epidemics of obesity and many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. Physical inactivity increases the relative risk of coronary artery disease by 45%, stroke by 60%, hypertension by 30%, and osteoporosis by 59%. Moreover, physical inactivity is cited as an(More)
By the age of 50 yrs old, humans become aware that they are losing muscle strength (mass) and endurance (mitochondria). A frequent symptom of neuromuscular disorders is muscle weakness (Walton, 1988). We define the aging-associated muscle wasting as a progressive neuromuscular syndrome that will lower the quality of life in the elderly by (1) decreasing the(More)