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Changes in gene expression are thought to underlie many of the phenotypic differences between species. However, large-scale analyses of gene expression evolution were until recently prevented by technological limitations. Here we report the sequencing of polyadenylated RNA from six organs across ten species that represent all major mammalian lineages(More)
The nearly neutral theory of molecular evolution predicts that the efficacy of both positive and purifying selection is a function of the long-term effective population size (N(e)) of a species. Under this theory, the efficacy of natural selection should increase with N(e). Here, we tested this simple prediction by surveying ~1.5 to 1.8 Mb of protein coding(More)
Genetic mapping studies of quantitative traits typically focus on detecting loci that contribute additively to trait variation. Genetic interactions are often proposed as a contributing factor to trait variation, but the relative contribution of interactions to trait variation is a subject of debate. Here we use a very large cross between two yeast strains(More)
Aggregated beta/A4-amyloid is known to increase intraneuronal calcium by various mechanisms and to lead eventually to the death of the cultured neuron. This study deals with the role of beta/A4-amyloid and several of its fragments in calcium homeostasis, glial fibrillary acid protein and S100beta staining, morphology and survival of cultured rat hippocampal(More)
Domestication has led to similar changes in morphology and behavior in several animal species, raising the question whether similarities between different domestication events also exist at the molecular level. We used mRNA sequencing to analyze genome-wide gene expression patterns in brain frontal cortex in three pairs of domesticated and wild species(More)
The rapid molecular evolution of reproductive genes is nearly ubiquitous across animals, yet the selective forces and functional targets underlying this divergence remain poorly understood. Humans and closely related species of great apes show strongly divergent mating systems, providing a powerful system to investigate the influence of sperm competition on(More)
Despite the apparent robustness of language learning in humans, a large number of children still fail to develop appropriate language skills despite adequate means and opportunity. Most cases of language impairment have a complex etiology, with genetic and environmental influences. In contrast, we describe a three-generation German family who present with(More)
Histopathologically, Alzheimer's disease is characterized by plaques and tangles that develop progressively over time. Experimental data described a statin-induced decrease in beta-amyloid production, a major constituent of the plaques. Others reported data on statin-mediated changes in neuronal survival and cytoskeleton, including the(More)
It is now possible to perform whole-genome shotgun sequencing as well as capture of specific genomic regions for extinct organisms. However, targeted resequencing of large parts of nuclear genomes has yet to be demonstrated for ancient DNA. Here we show that hybridization capture on microarrays can successfully recover more than a megabase of target regions(More)
Variation among individuals arises in part from differences in DNA sequences, but the genetic basis for variation in most traits, including common diseases, remains only partly understood. Many DNA variants influence phenotypes by altering the expression level of one or several genes. The effects of such variants can be detected as expression quantitative(More)