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Human spinal dura and arachnoid, obtained during neurosurgical operations, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure of spinal meninges largely conformed to the morphology of the cranial meninges, but some minor differences were detected. The dura was composed of an outermost loosely arranged fibroelastic layer, a middle basically(More)
Oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system, are the target of pathogenic immune responses in multiple sclerosis. Primary cultures of human oligodendrocytes have been used to unravel the cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated injury of oligodendrocytes. However, these studies are hampered by the limited(More)
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Myelin and oligodendrocytes are considered the major targets of injury caused by a cell-mediated immune response. There is circumstantial evidence that proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) could have(More)
We have demonstrated previously that adult human synovial membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hSM-MSCs) have myogenic potential in vitro (De Bari, C., F. Dell'Accio, P. Tylzanowski, and F.P. Luyten. 2001. Arthritis Rheum. 44:1928-1942). In the present study, we have characterized their myogenic differentiation in a nude mouse model of skeletal muscle(More)
AIMS Rapid and extensive activation of astrocytes occurs subsequent to many forms of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Recent studies have revealed that the expression profile of reactive astrocytes comprises antigens present during astrocyte development. Elevated levels of the injury-related cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1)(More)
In multiple sclerosis (MS), damage to oligodendrocytes is believed to be caused by an aberrant immune response initiated by autoreactive T cells. Increasing evidence indicates that these T cells are not exclusively detrimental but might also exert protective effects. We report for the first time that myelin-reactive T-cell clones from eight MS patients(More)
Oligodendrocytes are glial cells responsible for the synthesis and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocytes are vulnerable to damage occurring in a variety of neurological diseases. Understanding oligodendrocyte biology is crucial for the dissemination of de- and remyelination mechanisms. The goal of the present study is(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of multiple sclerosis (MS) on skeletal muscle characteristics, such as muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA), fiber type proportion, muscle strength and whole muscle mass, remains conflicting. METHODS In this cross sectional study, body composition and muscle strength of the quadriceps were assessed in 34 MS (EDSS: 2.5±0.19)(More)
The innervation of the human lumbar facet joint capsule was studied by light and electron microscopy. Small numbers of encapsulated corpuscular endings were identified in the dense fibrous layer. Clusters of 2 types of endings were found: small cylindrical corpuscles (type 1) and large fusiform corpuscles (type 2). The corpuscles were classified(More)
INTRODUCTION Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. METHODS Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2 exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity(More)