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Significant deficiencies in understanding of xenospecific immunity have impeded the success of preclinical trials in xenoislet transplantation. Although galactose-α1,3-galactose, the gal epitope, has emerged as the principal target of rejection in pig-to-primate models of solid organ transplant, the importance of gal-specific immunity in islet(More)
Memory T cells promote allograft rejection particularly in co-stimulation blockade-based immunosuppressive regimens. Here we show that the CD2-specific fusion protein alefacept (lymphocyte function-associated antigen-3-Ig; LFA -3-Ig) selectively eliminates memory T cells and, when combined with a co-stimulation blockade-based regimen using cytotoxic T(More)
Belatacept is an inhibitor of CD28/B7 costimulation that is clinically indicated as a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) alternative in combination with mycophenolate mofetil and steroids after renal transplantation. We sought to develop a clinically translatable, nonlymphocyte depleting, belatacept-based regimen that could obviate the need for both CNIs and(More)
In murine models, T-cell costimulation blockade of the CD28:B7 and CD154:CD40 pathways synergistically promotes immune tolerance after transplantation. While CD28 blockade has been successfully translated to the clinic, translation of blockade of the CD154:CD40 pathway has been less successful, in large part due to thromboembolic complications associated(More)
Costimulation blockade of the CD40/CD154 pathway has been effective at preventing allograft rejection in numerous transplantation models. This strategy has largely depended on mAbs directed against CD154, limiting the potential for translation due to its association with thromboembolic events. Though targeting CD40 as an alternative to CD154 has been(More)
Immunosuppressive therapies that block the CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway have proven to be uniquely effective in preclinical xenotransplant models. Given the challenges facing clinical translation of CD40/CD154 pathway blockade, we examined the efficacy and tolerability of CD40/CD154 pathway-sparing immunomodulatory strategies in a pig-to-nonhuman(More)
Outcomes in transplantation have been limited by suboptimal long-term graft survival and toxicities associated with current immunosuppressive approaches. T cell costimulation blockade has shown promise as an alternative strategy to avoid the side effects of conventional immunosuppressive therapies, but targeting CD28-mediated costimulation alone has proven(More)
The importance of CD40/CD154 costimulatory pathway blockade in immunosuppression strategies is well-documented. Efforts are currently focused on monoclonal antibodies specific for CD40 because of thromboembolic complications associated with monoclonal antibodies directed towards CD154. Here we present the rational development and characterization of a novel(More)
Islet transplantation to treat type 1 diabetes has been limited in part by toxicities of current immunosuppression and recipient humoral sensitization. Blockade of the CD28/CD80/86 and CD40/CD154 pathways has shown promise to remedy both these limitations, but translation has been hampered by difficulties in translating CD154-directed therapies. Prior(More)
CD154-specific antibody therapy prevents allograft rejection in many experimental transplant models. However, initial clinical transplant trials with anti-CD154 have been disappointing suggesting the need for as of yet undetermined adjuvant therapy. In rodents, donor antigen (e.g., a donor blood transfusion), or mTOR inhibition (e.g., sirolimus), enhances(More)