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The present review describes several methods to characterize and differentiate between two different mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. Most of these methods were applied to studies of apoptosis triggered in the human leukemic HL-60 cell line by DNA topoisomerase I or II inhibitors, and in rat thymocytes by either topoisomerase inhibitors or(More)
In cells undergoing apoptosis (programmed cell death), a fraction of nuclear DNA is fragmented to the size equivalent of DNA in mono- or oligonucleosomes. When such DNA is analyzed by agarose gel electrophoresis it generates the characteristic "ladder" pattern of discontinuous DNA fragments. Such a pattern of DNA degradation generally serves as a marker of(More)
The term cell necrobiology is introduced to comprise the life processes associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular changes which predispose, precede, and accompany cell death, as well as the consequences and tissue response to cell death. Two alternative modes of cell death can be distinguished, apoptosis and accidental cell death, generally(More)
The studies were aimed to detect the cell cycle-associated differences in the susceptibility of HL-60 cells to apoptosis induced by diverse agents. Exponentially growing HL-60 cells were treated with the DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin; the DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors teniposide, m-AMSA, Mitoxantrone, or Fostriecin; the presumed tyrosine(More)
The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) gene is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of genes. Murine PD-1 mRNA expression has been shown to correlate with activation-induced apoptosis in a mouse T-cell hybridoma cell line and in murine thymocytes. Here we report that expression of the human homolog, hPD-1, seems to correlate with activation of T lymphocytes(More)
Several parameters of stimulation of individual lymphocytes are measured simultaneously by flow-cytofluorometry after differential staining of cellular DNA and RNA with the metachromatic fluorescent dye acridine orange. The method provides a means of analyzing the progression of stimulated cells through the cell cycle (G1, S and G2 + M), in addition to(More)
The aim of this study was to compare three methods of detection of apoptotic cells: (1) the method based on elution of low molecular weight DNA from the ethanol fixed cells followed by cell staining with DAPI (diamidino-2-phenylindole) or propidium iodide as the DNA fluorochromes, (2) the method of in situ labeling of DNA strand breaks with biotinylated(More)
Exposure of L1210 cells to DNA-intercalating antitumor drugs Novantrone (mitoxantrone; 20 ng/ml), doxorubicin (0.5 micrograms/ml), ellipticine (5 micrograms/ml), or the doxorubicin analogue AD198 (0.4 micrograms/ml), for 1 h, results in inhibition of cell proliferation, arrest of cells in the G2 phase of the cell cycle, and an increase in the number of(More)
By preventing deacetylation of histones, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) transcriptionally induce p21. Here we show that the HDIs sodium butyrate (Bu), trichostatin A (TSA) and depsipeptide (FR901228) all induced p21, but only TSA and FR901228 caused mitotic arrest (in addition to arrest in G1 and G2). The ability to cause mitotic arrest correlated(More)