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Palaeobiological evidence indicates that gymnosperms were wind-pollinated and that insect pollination began in angiosperms in the Lower Cretaceous (ca. 135 mya) leading to close associations between higher plants and their pollinators. Cycads, which were widespread and pervasive throughout the Mesozoic (250–65 mya) are among the most primitive living(More)
Fourteen tropane and related alkaloids were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. The biogenetic intermediates littorine, 6 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine, 7 beta-hydroxyhyoscyamine exhibit similar affinities at the muscarinic receptor as scopolamine and atropine. The quarternary derivatives N-methylatropine and(More)
Hot water extracts of Rheum plamatum and Rheum dentatus (from China) showed molluscicidal activity against the snails Oncomelania hupensis, Biomphalaria glabrata and Bulinus globosus, which are vectors of Schistosoma japonicum, S. mansoni and S. haematobium, respectively. Activity was correlated with antraquinones which were identified by HPLC: rhein and(More)
The effect of 34 alkaloids of the piperidine, pyridine, tropane, isoquinoline, indole, quinolizidine, quinoline, purine, and steroidal types on the growth of Trypanosoma brucei, T. congolense, and human HL-60 cells was investigated in vitro. Berbamine, berberine, cinchonidine, cinchonine, emetine, ergotamine, quinidine, quinine, and sanguinarine showed(More)
Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of the fruits of Eucalyptus globulus and to examine the potential application of the fruit oil against multidrug-resistant bacteria. GLC/MS analysis in the fruit oil showed that aromadendrene was the main compound followed by 1,8-cineole and globulol. The three(More)
The phorbol ester DHPB has been detected in 5th instars and adults of Pachycoris klugii which feed on Jatropha curcas, a producer of phorbol esters with mollusc-, insect-, and vertebrate toxicity. DHPB from Pachycoris activates protein kinase C (PKC) which appears to be the main molecular target for phorbol esters. Phorbol esters of J. curcas exhibit a wide(More)
Thymus lanceolatus is a rare species, which grows wild in Algeria and Tunis. It is used traditionally as a drink and to flavor and preserve meat and poultry. The composition of the essential oil was determined by GLC/FID and GLC/MS. Forty-nine components were identified and quantified, accounting for 96.75% of the total detected components in the oil. The(More)
CONTEXT Eucalyptus globulus Labill (Myrtaceae) is the principal source of eucalyptus oil in the world and has been used as an antiseptic and for relieving symptoms of cough, cold, sore throat, and other infections. The oil, well known as 'eucalyptus oil' commercially, has been produced from the leaves. Biological properties of the essential oil of fruits(More)
The objective of this investigation was to characterize the active-component harpagoside of Harpagophytum extract from a physico-chemical perspective and to determine its in-vitro release from tablets according to DAB 1996. It was found that both pure harpagoside and harpagoside in Harpagophytum extract have an octanol-water distribution coefficient of(More)