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The production and use of nanoparticles (NP) has steadily increased within the last decade; however, knowledge about risks of NP to human health and ecosystems is still scarce. Common knowledge concerning NP effects on freshwater organisms is largely limited to standard short-term (≤48 h) toxicity tests, which lack both NP fate characterization and an(More)
Production and use of engineered nanoparticles, such as titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO(2)), is increasing worldwide, enhancing their probability to enter aquatic environments. However, direct effects of nTiO(2) as well as ecotoxicological consequences due to the interactions of nTiO(2) with environmental factors like ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on(More)
The increasing use of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO(2)) inevitably results in their release into the environment, raising concerns about potential adverse effects in wildlife. By following standard test protocols, several studies investigated the ecotoxicity of nTiO(2) among others to Daphnia magna. These studies indicated a large variability -(More)
The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a(More)
Unintentionally released titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) may co-occur in aquatic environments together with other stressors, such as, metal ions. The effects of P25-nTiO2 on the toxicity and uptake of the elements silver (Ag), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) were assessed by applying a factorial test design. The test design consisted of two(More)
Interactions with environmental parameters may alter the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study therefore assessed the (in)direct effects of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (nano-TiO(2)) towards Gammarus fossarum, considering nano-TiO(2)'s photocatalytic properties at ambient UV-intensities. Gammarids' habitat selection was investigated using its(More)
Nanoparticle toxicity depends amongst others on particle characteristics and nanoparticle behavior during their aquatic life cycle. Aquatic organisms may be exposed to nanoparticle agglomerates of varying size, while lager agglomerates after settling rather affect benthic organisms. In this context, the present study systematically examined the role of(More)
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO₂) form reactive oxygen species (ROS) under irradiation by ultraviolet light (UV). This known photocatalytic activity may finally affect the presence and toxicity of organic environmental chemicals, which have not yet been studied at ambient UV intensity. The authors used a three-factorial design to evaluate the(More)
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) are expected to interact with natural substances and other chemicals in the environment, however little is known about their combined effects. Therefore, this study assessed the toxicity of copper (Cu) in combination with varying crystalline phases (anatase, rutile, and the mixture) of nTiO2 and differing organic(More)
Studies assessing the acute and chronic toxicity of silver nanoparticle (nAg) materials rarely consider potential implications of environmental variables. In order to increase our understanding in this respect, we investigated the acute and chronic effects of various nAg materials on Daphnia magna. Thereby, different nanoparticle size classes with a citrate(More)