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Only three biological pathways are known to produce oxygen: photosynthesis, chlorate respiration and the detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Here we present evidence for a fourth pathway, possibly of considerable geochemical and evolutionary importance. The pathway was discovered after metagenomic sequencing of an enrichment culture that couples(More)
INTRODUCTION In this study we compare the ultrasound features in the median nerve in patients with different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease and hereditary neuropathies with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) as a typical entrapment neuropathy. METHODS Median nerve ultrasound and conduction studies were performed in patients with CMT1A (n =(More)
IMPORTANCE The applicability of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) positron emission tomography (PET) as a biomarker in clinical settings to aid in selection of individuals at preclinical and prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD) will depend on the practicality of PET image analysis. In this context, visual-based Aβ PET assessment seems to be the most feasible approach. (More)
Pharmaceuticals are abundant at low concentrations (i.e. ng L(-1); microg L(-1)) in natural aquatic systems. However, very little is known about their effects on microorganisms. This study investigated the influence of the pharmaceuticals phenazone, amoxicillin and erythromycin, at low, non-toxic concentrations (i.e. 0.5-50 microg L(-1)), on the initial(More)
Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an environmentally important atmospheric trace gas because it is an effective greenhouse gas and it leads to ozone depletion through photo-chemical nitric oxide (NO) production in the stratosphere. Mitigating its steady increase in atmospheric concentration requires an understanding of the mechanisms that lead to its formation in(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The coincidence of hemodynamic and embolic findings in patients with stroke from large artery stenosis has suggested an interaction of both pathologies. This has emerged into the hypothesis of an impaired washout of emboli in the presence of hypoperfusion. We propose an additional link between both pathologies. SUMMARY OF CASE A(More)
Permeable or sandy sediments cover the majority of the seafloor on continental shelves worldwide, but little is known about their role in the coastal nitrogen cycle. We investigated the rates and controls of nitrogen loss at a sand flat (Janssand) in the central German Wadden Sea using multiple experimental approaches, including the nitrogen isotope pairing(More)
The intestinal microbiota features intricate metabolic interactions involving the breakdown and reuse of host- and diet-derived nutrients. The competition for these resources can limit pathogen growth. Nevertheless, some enteropathogenic bacteria can invade this niche through mechanisms that remain largely unclear. Using a mouse model for Salmonella(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) are formed during N-cycling in complex microbial communities in response to fluctuating molecular oxygen (O(2)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)) concentrations. Until now, the formation of NO and N(2)O in microbial communities has been measured with low spatial and temporal resolution, which hampered elucidation of the(More)