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The open field test (OFT) is a widely used procedure for examining the behavioral effects of drugs and anxiety. Detailed ethological assessments of animal behavior are lacking. Here we present a detailed ethological assessment of the effects of acute treatment with the benzodiazepines, diazepam (DZ, 1.5mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (CDP, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg),(More)
UNLABELLED Sequential transmission scanning (TS)/SPECT is impractical for neurologically impaired patients who are unable to keep their heads motionless for the extended duration of the combined scans. To provide an alternative to TS, we have developed a method of inferring-attenuation distributions (IADs), from SPECT data, using a head atlas and a(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate a potential approach for improved attenuation correction (AC) of PET in simultaneous PET and MRI brain imaging, a straightforward approach that adds bone information missing on Dixon AC was explored. METHODS Bone information derived from individual T1-weighted MRI data using segmentation tools in SPM8, were added to the standard Dixon(More)
Results of prior investigations with opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgaesia have suggested that these extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field effects are described by a resonance mechanism rather than mechanisms based on either induced currents or magnetite. Here we show that ELF magnetic fields (141-414 microT peak) can, in a manner(More)
An increasing number of reports have demonstrated a significant effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF MFs) on aspects of animal and human behavior. Recent studies suggest that exposure to ELF MFs affects human brain electrical activity as measured by electroencephalography (EEG), specifically within the alpha frequency (8-13 Hz). Here we(More)
We have previously shown that the myocardial Gd-DTPA concentration ([Gd-DTPA]t(t)) after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA can be predicted by the Modified Kety Equation (MKE). If [Gd-DTPA]t(t) can be determined by MRI and the data fit to the MKE, then the distribution volume (lambda) of Gd-DTPA and the myocardial flow (F) times the extraction efficiency (E),(More)
In order to clarify the relationship between coronary artery disease (including myocardial infarction) and image contrast in gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced MRI it was decided to model the myocardial tissue distribution and clearance of Gd-DTPA using the modified Kety equation. Using a canine model, myocardial tissue Gd-DTPA(More)
Although extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (<300 Hz) appear to exert a variety of biological effects, the magnetic field sensing/transduction mechanism(s) remains to be established. Here, using the inhibitory effects of magnetic fields on endogenous opioid peptide-mediated "analgaesic" response of the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis, we addressed(More)
Static and time-varying magnetic fields have been shown to alter animal and human behaviors, such as directional orientation, learning, pain perception (nociception or analgesia) and anxiety-related behaviors. Human volunteers (12 male, 12 female, 18-34 years old) stood on a force plate while within three square magnetic field coil pairs (2, 1.75 and 1.5 m)(More)
Exposure of adult male mice to a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure has been shown to abolish the nocturnal analgesic responses observed following treatment with morphine. The field component(s) responsible for this inhibitory effect were examined by exposing mice to either the static, time-varying or rf magnetic field components associated with an(More)