Frank S. Kaczmarek

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The XPR2 gene encoding an alkaline extracellular protease (AEP) from Yarrowia lipolytica was cloned, and its complete nucleotide sequence was determined. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence reveals that the mature AEP consists of 297 amino acids with a relative molecular weight of 30,559. The gene codes for a putative 22-amino-acid(More)
Avermectin and its analogues are produced by the actinomycete Streptomyces avermitilis and are major commercial products for parasite control in the fields of animal health, agriculture, and human infections. Historically, the avermectin analogue doramectin (CHC-B1), which is sold commercially as Dectomax is co-produced during fermentation with the(More)
A Staphylococcus aureus mutant conditionally defective in DNA ligase was identified by isolation of complementing plasmid clones that encode the S. aureus ligA gene. Orthologues of the putative S. aureus NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase could be identified in the genomes of Bacillus stearothermophilus and other gram-positive bacteria and confirmed the presence(More)
The degradation of Streptomyces avermitilis DNA samples analysed by conventional pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was shown to be due to Tris-dependent, double-strand cleavage. Using alternative electrophoretic conditions, separation of intact DNA molecules was achieved, permitting the identification of two novel giant linear plasmids: the 100 kb pSA1 and(More)
Quinolones are the most active oral antibacterials in clinical use and act by increasing DNA cleavage mediated by prokaryotic type II topoisomerases. Although topoisomerase IV appears to be the primary cytotoxic target for most quinolones in Gram-positive bacteria, interactions between the enzyme and these drugs are poorly understood. Therefore, the effects(More)
Previous studies with beta-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) Haemophilus influenzae from Japan, France, and North America indicate that mutations in ftsI encoding PBP3 confer ampicillin MICs of 1 to 4 micro g/ml. Several BLNAR strains with ampicillin MICs of 4 to 16 micro g/ml recently isolated from North America were studied. Pulsed-field(More)
The isolation of mutants of Streptomyces rimosus which were blocked in oxytetracycline (OTC) production was described previously. The genes for the early steps of antibiotic biosynthesis mapped together. Genomic DNA fragments of S. rimosus which conferred resistance to OTC and complemented all of these non-producing mutants have been cloned. The cloned DNA(More)
A 2810 by DNA fragment containing the beta-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase gene of the dimorphic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica has been sequenced. The sequence contains an open reading frame of 405 codons, predicting a protein of 43,366 molecular weight. Protein sequence homology with the polypeptide encoded by the LEU2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is 64%,(More)
Frequencies of mutation to resistance with trovafloxacin and four other quinolones were determined with quinolone-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 by a direct plating method. First-step mutants were selected less frequently with trovafloxacin (1.1 x 10(-10) at 2 to 4x the MIC) than with levofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (3.0 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-8) at(More)
Topoisomerase IV is the primary cellular target for most quinolones in Gram-positive bacteria; however, its interaction with these agents is poorly understood. Therefore, the effects of four clinically relevant antibacterial quinolones (ciprofloxacin, and three new generation quinolones: trovafloxacin, levofloxacin, and sparfloxacin) on the DNA(More)