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The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4-R) is a G protein-coupled, seven-transmembrane receptor expressed in the brain. Inactivation of this receptor by gene targeting results in mice that develop a maturity onset obesity syndrome associated with hyperphagia, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. This syndrome recapitulates several of the characteristic features of(More)
kinases that they directly activate, such as PAK (Bag-rodia et al. then activated by these proteins by a mechanism yet to be determined. MEKK1 then activates MKK4, which in While the signal transduction cascade leading to the activation of JNK is relatively well defined, the steps leading to the phosphorylation of I␬B␣ are poorly understood. Many of the(More)
PURPOSE Several Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitors have entered clinical trials based on their direct effects against tumor cells. Here, we characterize the effects of targeting Src kinases on the tumor microenvironment and how these effects influence tumor growth. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Human cancer cells grown in cell culture or in mice were treated with(More)
Polycythemia is often associated with erythropoietin (EPO) overexpression and defective oxygen sensing. In normal cells, intracellular oxygen concentrations are directly sensed by prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-containing proteins, which tag hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha subunits for polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by oxygen-dependent(More)
The molecular basis of the erythrocytosis group of red cell disorders is incompletely defined. Some cases are due to dysregulation of erythropoietin (Epo) synthesis. The hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF) tightly regulates Epo synthesis. HIF in turn is regulated through its alpha subunit, which under normoxic conditions is hydroxylated on specific(More)
OBJECTIVE Smooth muscle cell migration is critical to neointimal formation after arterial injury. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the regulation and functional significance of cell-cell adhesion via adherens junctions during this process. METHODS AND RESULTS Using balloon catheter injury of rat carotid artery, we showed that neointimal(More)
As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and(More)
Humans have adapted to the chronic hypoxia of high altitude in several locations, and recent genome-wide studies have indicated a genetic basis. In some populations, genetic signatures have been identified in the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway, which orchestrates the transcriptional response to hypoxia. In Tibetans, they have been found in the HIF2A(More)
Background: The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription complex, which is activated by low oxygen tension, controls a diverse range of cellular processes including angiogenesis and erythropoiesis. Under normoxic conditions, the α subunit of HIF is rapidly degraded in a manner dependent on hydroxylation of two conserved proline residues at positions 402(More)
BACKGROUND Cervical cancer, although usually preventable by Pap smear screening, remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women in Peru. The percentages and characteristics of women in Peru who have or have not had a Pap smear have not been defined. METHODS In an urban community randomized trial of sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV(More)