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The agonist-induced dynamic regulation of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)-AR) on living cells was examined by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) using a fluorescence-labeled arterenol derivative (Alexa-NA) in hippocampal neurons and in alveolar epithelial type II cell line A549. Alexa-NA specifically bound to the beta(2)-AR of(More)
Because of their properties, ionic liquids (ILs) (Ranke et al.) offer many advantages in topical drug delivery systems. For example, ionic liquids can be used to increase the solubility of sparingly soluble drugs and to enhance their topical and transdermal delivery. Furthermore, ILs can be used either to synthesize active pharmaceutical ingredients or as(More)
Hederacoside C, alpha-hederin, and hederagenin are saponins of dry extracts obtained from the leaves of ivy (Hedera helix L.). Internalization of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor-GFP fusion proteins after stimulation with 1 microM terbutaline was inhibited by preincubation of stably transfected HEK293 cells with 1 microM alpha-hederin for 24 h, whereas neither(More)
Pharmaceuticals and cosmetics for dermal application are usually tested on healthy skin, although the primary permeation barrier, the stratum corneum, is often impaired by skin diseases or small skin lesions, especially on the hands. These skin conditions can considerably influence the permeation of chemicals and drugs. Furthermore, risk assessment for(More)
Multiple water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions are of major interest as potential skin delivery systems for water-soluble drugs like oligonucleotides due to their distinct encapsulation properties. However, multiple emulsions are highly sensitive in terms of variations of the individual components. The presence of osmotic active ingredients in the inner(More)
A confocal imaging and image processing scheme is introduced to visualize and evaluate the spatial distribution of spectral information in tissue. The image data are recorded using a confocal laser-scanning microscope equipped with a detection unit that provides high spectral resolution. The processing scheme is based on spectral data, is less error-prone(More)
DNAzymes are potent novel drugs for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis. DNAzymes represent a novel class of pharmaceuticals that fulfil a causal therapy by interruption of the inflammation cascade at its origin. There are two challenges regarding the dermal application of DNAzymes: the large molecular weight and the sensitivity(More)
Multiple W/O/W emulsions for topical application using Span 80 as a lipophilic emulsifier were prepared. Several hydrophilic emulsifiers were tested in respect of their suitability for the preparation of multiple emulsions. In addition, the effect of different oil-phase compositions on emulsion stability was investigated. The physicochemical parameters of(More)
PURPOSE The feasibility of Monte Carlo simulations as a tool to facilitate quantitative image analysis is investigated by means of simulating light transport in skin phantoms. METHODS A Monte Carlo tool is used to compare if simulated fluorescent signals show agreement with measured data. The lipophilic fluorescent probe Nile Red and dedicated skin(More)
The incidence of superficial fungal infections is assumed to be 20 to 25% of the global human population. Fluorescence microscopy of extracted skin samples is frequently used for a swift assessment of infections. To support the dermatologist, an image-analysis scheme has been developed that evaluates digital microscopic images to detect fungal hyphae. The(More)