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The most logical concept for the removal of azo dyes in biological wastewater treatment systems is based on anaerobic treatment, for the reductive cleavage of the dyes' azo linkages, in combination with aerobic treatment, for the degradation of the products from azo dye cleavage, aromatic amines. Since the 1990s, several research papers have been published(More)
During the last two decades, extensive research has explored the catalytic effects of different organic molecules with redox mediating properties on the anaerobic (bio)transformation of a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. The accumulated evidence points at a major role of electron shuttles in the redox conversion of several distinct(More)
Activated carbon (AC) has a long history of applications in environmental technology as an adsorbent of pollutants for the purification of drinking waters and wastewaters. Here we describe novel role of AC as redox mediator in accelerating the reductive transformation of pollutants as well as a terminal electron acceptor in the biological oxidation of an(More)
The decolourisation of 20 selected azo dyes by granular sludge from an upward-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor was assayed. Complete reduction was found for all azo dyes tested, generally yielding colourless products. The reactions followed first-order kinetics and reaction rates varied greatly between dyes: half-life times ranged from 1 to about(More)
Azo dyes are nonspecifically reduced under anaerobic conditions but the slow rates at which reactive azo dyes are converted presents a serious problem for the application of anaerobic technology as a first stage in the complete biodegradation of these compounds. As quinones have been found to catalyze reductive transfers by acting as redox mediators, the(More)
This review presents a comprehensive summary on applications of anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology for industrial wastewaters in view of different aspects including treatability and filterability. AnMBRs present an attractive option for the treatment of industrial wastewaters at extreme conditions, such as high salinity, high temperature, high(More)
The surface chemistry of a commercial AC (AC(0)) was selectively modified, without changing significantly its textural properties, by chemical oxidation with HNO(3) (AC(HNO3)) and O(2) (AC(O2)), and thermal treatments under H(2) (AC(H2)) or N(2) (AC(N2)) flow. The effect of modified AC on anaerobic chemical dye reduction was assayed with sulphide at(More)
The reductive biotransformation of acid orange 7 (AO7) was explored in a lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor at low hydraulic residence times (HRT). A colour removal of 85% was achieved when the reactor was operated at a HRT of 6 hours, but decreased up to 70% when the HRT was lowered to 2 hours. Addition of the quinone model compound,(More)
The potential of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) for the treatment of lipid rich corn-to-ethanol thin stillage was investigated at three different sludge retention times (SRT), i.e. 20, 30 and 50 days. The membrane assisted biomass retention in AnMBRs provided an excellent solution to sludge washout problems reported for the treatment of lipid rich(More)
During the last decade, several physico-chemical and biological techniques have been developed to remove colour from textile wastewaters. Some of these techniques rely on and many will profit from activated carbon (AC). The role of AC is versatile: (1) it acts as a dye adsorbent, not only in straightforward adsorption processes but also in AC-enhanced(More)