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Conditional stimuli (CS) that are paired with reward can be used to motivate instrumental responses. This process is called Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT). A recent study in rats suggested that habitual responses are particularly sensitive to the motivational effects of reward cues. The current experiments examined this idea using ratio and interval(More)
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract Nature has had millions of years to optimize photonic crystals-an endeavour mankind only really began in the 1980s. Often, we attempt to mimic and expand upon nature's designs in creating photonic structures that meet our(More)
Malignant acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen primarily in adults with an underlying diagnosis of gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma. Malignant AN is characterized by hyperpigmentation and velvety hyperplasia of the epidermis. This condition is generally not associated with tumors in pediatric populations or in the adrenal gland.(More)
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