Frank O. Richards

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In most resource-poor settings, malaria is usually diagnosed based on clinical signs and symptoms and not by detection of parasites in the blood using microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDT). In population-based malaria surveys, accurate diagnosis is important: microscopy provides the gold standard, whilst RDTs allow immediate findings and treatment. The(More)
To eliminate transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, semiannual mass treatment with ivermectin (Mectizan; donated by Merck & Co) has been underway in Guatemala since 2000. We applied the 2001 World Health Organization (WHO) elimination criteria in the Santa Rosa focus of onchocerciasis transmission in Guatemala (10,923 persons at risk). No evidence of parasite(More)
In Africa anopheline mosquitoes transmit malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF); insecticide-treated bed nets significantly reduce transmission of both. Insecticide-treated bed net provision to children under 5 (U5) and pregnant women (PW) is a major goal of malaria control initiatives, but use in Africa remains low because of cost and logistics. We(More)
Onchocerciasis is a filarial infection which causes blindness and debilitating skin lesions. The disease occurs in 37 countries, of which 30 are found in Africa (the most affected in terms of the distribution and the severity of the clinical manifestations of the disease), six in the Americas and one in the Arabian Peninsula. The latest WHO Expert Committee(More)
The current strategy for interrupting transmission of lymphatic filariasis (LF) is annual mass drug administration (MDA), at good coverage, for 6 or more years. We describe our programmatic experience delivering the MDA combination of ivermectin and albendazole in Plateau and Nasarawa states in central Nigeria, where LF is caused by anopheline transmitted(More)
We assessed malaria infection in relation to age, altitude, rainfall, socio-economic factors and coverage of control measures in a representative sample of 11437 people in Amhara, Oromia and SNNP regions of Ethiopia in December 2006-January 2007. Surveys were conducted in 224 randomly selected clusters of 25 households (overall sample of 27884 people in(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria transmission in Ethiopia is unstable and seasonal, with the majority of the country's population living in malaria-prone areas. Results from DHS 2005 indicate that the coverage of key malaria interventions was low. The government of Ethiopia has set the national goal of full population coverage with a mean of 2 long-lasting insecticidal(More)
We review and analyze approaches over a 65 year period that have proven successful for onchocerciasis control in several different epidemiological settings. These include vector control with the goal of transmission interruption versus the use of mass drug administration using ivermectin (Mectizan(®)) monotherapy. Ivermectin has proven exceedingly effective(More)
This paper describes a pilot initiative to incorporate lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination and urinary schistosomiasis (SH) control into a mature onchocerciasis control program based on community-directed ivermectin treatment in central Nigeria. In the same districts having onchocerciasis we found LF (as determined by blood antigen testing in adult males)(More)
Residents of five hyperendemic communities located in the central focus of onchocerciasis in Guatemala were treated with ivermectin (Mectizan) or placebo every six months for 30 months. The effects of treatment on prevalence and the intensity of skin infection (microfilarial skin density [MFD]) were evaluated. Significant and persistent reductions in both(More)