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Phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB) proteins is an important step in the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and requires two IkappaB kinases, IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta). Mice that are devoid of the IKK2 gene had extensive liver damage from apoptosis and died as embryos, but these mice could be rescued by(More)
Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is controlled by the sequential phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of its inhibitory subunit, IkappaB. We recently purified a large multiprotein complex, the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalsome, which contains two regulated IkappaB kinases, IKK1 and IKK2, that can each phosphorylate IkappaBalpha and(More)
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is controlled by sequential phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of its inhibitory subunit IkappaB. A large multiprotein complex, the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalsome, was purified from HeLa cells and found to contain a cytokine-inducible IkappaB kinase activity that(More)
One Ras-dependent protein kinase cascade leading from growth factor receptors to the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is dependent on the protein kinase Raf-1, which activates the MEK (MAPK or ERK kinase) dual specificity kinases. A second protein kinase cascade leading to activation of the(More)
The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) family of transcription factors plays a seminal role in inflammation, apoptosis, development, and cancer. Modulation of NF-kappaB-mediated gene expression in response to diverse signals is coordinated by the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex. We identified ELKS, an essential regulatory subunit of the IKK complex. Silencing(More)
Decreased p27(Kip1) levels are a poor prognostic factor in many malignancies, and can occur through up-regulation of SCF(Skp2) E3 ligase function, resulting in enhanced p27 ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. While proteasome inhibitors stabilize p27(Kip1), agents inhibiting SCF(Skp2) may represent more directly targeted drugs with the(More)
SCF ubiquitin ligases recruit substrates for degradation via F box protein adaptor subunits. WD40 repeat F box proteins, such as Cdc4 and beta-TrCP, contain a conserved dimerization motif called the D domain. Here, we report that the D domain protomers of yeast Cdc4 and human beta-TrCP form a superhelical homotypic dimer. Disruption of the D domain(More)
NF-kappaB, a ubiquitous, inducible transcription factor involved in immune, inflammatory, stress and developmental processes, is retained in a latent form in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells by inhibitory molecules, IkappaBs. Its activation is a paradigm for a signal-transduction cascade that integrates an inducible kinase and the ubiquitin-proteasome(More)
NF-kappaB, a key regulator of the cellular inflammatory and immune response, is activated by the HTLV-I transforming and transactivating protein Tax. We show that Tax binds to the amino terminus of the protein kinase MEKK1, a component of an IkappaB kinase complex, and stimulates MEKK1 kinase activity. Tax expression increases the activity of IkappaB kinase(More)
NF-kappaB/Rel factors have been implicated in the regulation of liver cell death during development, after partial hepatectomy, and in hepatocytes in culture. Rat liver epithelial cells (RLEs) display many biochemical and ultrastructural characteristics of oval cells, which are multipotent cells that can differentiate into mature hepatocytes. While(More)