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Phosphorylation of inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB) proteins is an important step in the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) and requires two IkappaB kinases, IKK1 (IKKalpha) and IKK2 (IKKbeta). Mice that are devoid of the IKK2 gene had extensive liver damage from apoptosis and died as embryos, but these mice could be rescued by(More)
Activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is controlled by sequential phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of its inhibitory subunit IkappaB. A large multiprotein complex, the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalsome, was purified from HeLa cells and found to contain a cytokine-inducible IkappaB kinase activity that(More)
The transcription factor NF-kappaB regulates expression of genes that are involved in inflammation, immune response, viral infection, cell survival, and division. However, the role of NF-kappaB in hypertrophic growth of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes is unknown. Here we report that NF-kappaB activation is required for hypertrophic growth of(More)
Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB is controlled by the sequential phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation of its inhibitory subunit, IkappaB. We recently purified a large multiprotein complex, the IkappaB kinase (IKK) signalsome, which contains two regulated IkappaB kinases, IKK1 and IKK2, that can each phosphorylate IkappaBalpha and(More)
One Ras-dependent protein kinase cascade leading from growth factor receptors to the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is dependent on the protein kinase Raf-1, which activates the MEK (MAPK or ERK kinase) dual specificity kinases. A second protein kinase cascade leading to activation of the(More)
The recent identification of molecular components of the signal transduction pathway regulating activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in response to cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1beta allows the evaluation of how other diverse stimuli impinge on the NF-kappaB activation pathway. These studies suggest a basis for(More)
The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family has been considered the central mediator of the inflammatory process and a key participant in innate and adaptive immune responses. Coincident with the molecular cloning of NF-κB/RelA and identification of its kinship to the v-Rel oncogene, it was anticipated that NF-κB itself would be involved in(More)
Extracellular stimuli that activate the transcription factor NF-kappaB cause rapid phosphorylation of the IkappaBalpha inhibitor, which retains NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm of nonstimulated cells. Phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha is followed by its rapid degradation, the inhibition of which prevents NF-kappaB activation. To determine the relationship between(More)
NF-kappaB, a ubiquitous, inducible transcription factor involved in immune, inflammatory, stress and developmental processes, is retained in a latent form in the cytoplasm of non-stimulated cells by inhibitory molecules, IkappaBs. Its activation is a paradigm for a signal-transduction cascade that integrates an inducible kinase and the ubiquitin-proteasome(More)
The molecular circuitry underlying innate immunity is constructed of multiple, evolutionarily conserved signaling modules with distinct regulatory targets. The MAP kinases and the IKK-NF-kappa B molecules play important roles in the initiation of immune effector responses. We have found that the Drosophila NF-kappa B protein Relish plays a crucial role in(More)