Frank Mccormick

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Recent studies suggest that thousands of genes may contribute to breast cancer pathophysiologies when deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events. Here, we describe a model "system" to appraise the functional contributions of these genes to breast cancer subsets. In general, the recurrent genomic and transcriptional characteristics of 51 breast cancer cell(More)
GTPases are conserved molecular switches, built according to a common structural design. Rapidly accruing knowledge of individual GTPases--crystal structures, biochemical properties, or results of molecular genetic experiments--support and generate hypotheses relating structure to function in other members of the diverse family of GTPases.
Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor gene occur in most human colon cancers. Loss of functional APC protein results in the accumulation of beta-catenin. Mutant forms of beta-catenin have been discovered in colon cancers that retain wild-type APC genes, and also in melanomas, medulloblastomas, prostate cancer and gastric and(More)
Protein kinase B (PKB) is a proto-oncogene that is activated in signaling pathways initiated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Chromatographic separation of brain cytosol revealed a kinase activity that phosphorylated and activated PKB only in the presence of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. Phosphorylation occurred exclusively on(More)
The Rho family of GTPases control diverse biological processes, including cell morphology and mitogenesis. We have identified WASP, the protein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), as a novel effector for CDC42Hs, but not for the other Rho family members, Rac and Rho. This interaction is dependent on the presence of the G protein-binding(More)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is fundamental to both embryogenesis and tumor metastasis. The Notch intercellular signaling pathway regulates cell fate determination throughout metazoan evolution, and overexpression of activating alleles is oncogenic in mammals. Here we demonstrate that Notch activity promotes EMT during both cardiac development(More)
Proteins that bind and hydrolyse GTP are being discovered at a rapidly increasing rate. Each of these many GTPases acts as a molecular switch whose 'on' and 'off' states are triggered by binding and hydrolysis of GTP. Conserved structure and mechanism in myriad versions of the switch--in bacteria, yeast, flies and vertebrates--suggest that all derive from a(More)
Chromosome aberrations in human solid tumors are hallmarks of gene deregulation and genome instability. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding aberrations, discusses their functional importance, suggests mechanisms by which aberrations may form during cancer progression and provides examples of clinical advances that have come from studies of(More)
The life history of cancer cells encompasses a series of genetic missteps in which normal cells are progressively transformed into tumor cells that invade surrounding tissues and become malignant. Most prominent among the regulators disrupted in cancer cells are two tumor suppressors, the retinoblastoma protein (RB) and the p53 transcription factor. Here,(More)