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Recent studies suggest that thousands of genes may contribute to breast cancer pathophysiologies when deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events. Here, we describe a model "system" to appraise the functional contributions of these genes to breast cancer subsets. In general, the recurrent genomic and transcriptional characteristics of 51 breast cancer cell(More)
The Rho family of GTPases control diverse biological processes, including cell morphology and mitogenesis. We have identified WASP, the protein that is defective in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), as a novel effector for CDC42Hs, but not for the other Rho family members, Rac and Rho. This interaction is dependent on the presence of the G protein-binding(More)
Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumour-suppressor gene occur in most human colon cancers. Loss of functional APC protein results in the accumulation of beta-catenin. Mutant forms of beta-catenin have been discovered in colon cancers that retain wild-type APC genes, and also in melanomas, medulloblastomas, prostate cancer and gastric and(More)
Protein kinase B (PKB) is a proto-oncogene that is activated in signaling pathways initiated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Chromatographic separation of brain cytosol revealed a kinase activity that phosphorylated and activated PKB only in the presence of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3]. Phosphorylation occurred exclusively on(More)
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is fundamental to both embryogenesis and tumor metastasis. The Notch intercellular signaling pathway regulates cell fate determination throughout metazoan evolution, and overexpression of activating alleles is oncogenic in mammals. Here we demonstrate that Notch activity promotes EMT during both cardiac development(More)
Proteins that bind and hydrolyse GTP are being discovered at a rapidly increasing rate. Each of these many GTPases acts as a molecular switch whose 'on' and 'off' states are triggered by binding and hydrolysis of GTP. Conserved structure and mechanism in myriad versions of the switch--in bacteria, yeast, flies and vertebrates--suggest that all derive from a(More)
Protein kinase B (PKB) is activated in response to phosphoinositide 3-kinases and their lipid products phosphatidylinositol 3,4, 5-trisphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3] and PtdIns(3,4)P2 in the signaling pathways used by a wide variety of growth factors, antigens, and inflammatory stimuli. PKB is a direct target of these lipids, but this regulation is complex.(More)