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Standard methods of sediment toxicity testing are fairly well accepted; however, as with all else, evolution of these methods is inevitable. We compared a standard ASTM 10-day amphipod toxicity testing method with smaller, 48- and 96-h test methods using very toxic and reference sediments. In addition we compared parallel exposures of single species, either(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of sexual HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples when the HIV-positive partner has full virologic suppression on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is debated. This study aims to systematically review observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), evaluating rates of sexual HIV transmission between heterosexual(More)
BACKGROUND Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS Data(More)
BACKGROUND Since 2000, reported syphilis cases increased ten-fold in Canada, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) co-infected with HIV. We characterized temporal patterns of of syphilis testing in a large cohort of HIV patients in Ontario, Canada. METHODS We analyzed data from a multi-site cohort of people in HIV care from 2000 to 2009. Data(More)
African and Caribbean communities in Canada and other developed countries are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study of African and Caribbean communities in Toronto sought to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and the effects of multiple intersecting factors that influence responses to the disease,(More)
BACKGROUND Ensuring that people living with HIV are accessing and staying in care is vital to achieving optimal health outcomes including antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. We sought to characterize engagement in HIV care among participants of a large clinical cohort in Ontario, Canada, from 2001 to 2011. METHODS The Ontario HIV Treatment Network(More)
BACKGROUND The re-emergence of syphilis among HIV-positive gay and other men who have sex with men (MSM) requires vigilance. We estimated incidence of and risk factors for first and subsequent syphilis diagnoses among MSM in HIV care in Ontario, Canada. METHODS We analyzed data from 2,280 MSM under follow-up from 2006 to 2010 in the Ontario HIV Treatment(More)
Investments in community-based HIV prevention programs in Ontario over the past two and a half decades are assumed to have had an impact on the HIV epidemic, but they have never been systematically evaluated. To help close this knowledge gap, we conducted a macro-level evaluation of investment in Ontario HIV prevention programs from the payer perspective.(More)
OBJECTIVES We described patterns of testing for chlamydia and gonorrhoea infection among persons in specialty HIV care in Ontario, Canada, from 2008 to 2011. METHODS We analysed data from 3165 participants in the OHTN Cohort Study attending one of seven specialty HIV care clinics. We obtained chlamydia and gonorrhoea test results via record linkage with(More)