Frank M. Shipman

Learn More
The emergent nature of structure is a crucial, but often ignored, constraint on authoring hypertexts. VIKI is a spatial hypertext system that supports the emergent qualities of structure and the abstractions that guide its creation. We have found that a visual/spatial metaphor for hypertext allows people to express the nuances of structure, especialy(More)
The development of spatial hypertext systems was driven by the need to lower users' effort of expression. Users express categories and interrelationships through the visual similarity and co-location of information objects. The ease of changing a visual property or moving an object makes spatial hypertext better suited to tasks where the information(More)
This paper reflects on experiences designing, developing, and working with users of a variety of interactive computer systems. The authors propose, based on these experiences, that the cause of a number of unexpected difficulties in human-computer interaction lies in users' unwillingness or inability to make structure, content, or procedures explicit.(More)
Walden’s Paths applies the concept of hypertextual paths to the World-Wide Web. Walden’s Paths is being developed for use in the K-12 school environment. Theheterogeneity of the Web coupled with the desirability of supporting the teacher-student relationship make this an interesting and challenging project. We describe the Walden’s Paths implementation,(More)
Design rationale is a topic which implies different things to different people. To some it implies argumentation and frameworks for argumentation. To others it implies the documentation of design, like that required for many types of industrial or government work. Still others describe design rationale as the capture and potential reuse of normal(More)
Many interfaces allow users to manipulate graphical objects, icons representing underlying data or the data themselves, against a spatial backdrop or canvas. Users take advantage of the flexibility offered by spatial manipulation to create evolving lightweight structures. We have been investigating these implicit organizations so we can support user(More)
Computers require formally represented information to support users but users often cannot provide it. This paper looks at an approach called “incremental formalization”, when users express information informally and the system supports them in formalizing it. Incremental formalization requires a system architecture that can integrate formal and informal(More)
DOTS (Dynamic Object Tracking System) is an indoor, real-time, multi-camera surveillance system, deployed in a real office setting. DOTS combines video analysis and user interface components to enable security personnel to effectively monitor views of interest and to perform tasks such as tracking a person. The video analysis component performs(More)
We introduced detail-on-demand video as a simple type of hypervideo that allows users to watch short video segments and to follow hyperlinks to see additional detail. Such video lets users quickly access desired information without having to view the entire contents linearly. A challenge for presenting this type of video is to provide users with the(More)