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Recent studies suggest that thousands of genes may contribute to breast cancer pathophysiologies when deregulated by genomic or epigenomic events. Here, we describe a model "system" to appraise the functional contributions of these genes to breast cancer subsets. In general, the recurrent genomic and transcriptional characteristics of 51 breast cancer cell(More)
Cancer is a complex process in which the abnormalities of many genes appear to be involved. The combinatorial patterns of gene mutations may reveal the functional relations between genes and pathways in tumorigenesis as well as identify targets for treatment. We examined the patterns of somatic mutations of cancers from Catalog of Somatic Mutations in(More)
DS-7423, a novel, small-molecule dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is currently in phase I clinical trials for solid tumors. Although DS-7423 potently inhibits PI3Kα (IC50 = 15.6 nM) and mTOR (IC50 = 34.9 nM), it also inhibits other isoforms of class I PI3K (IC50 values: PI3Kβ = 1,143 nM; PI3Kγ(More)
Chromosome aberrations in human solid tumors are hallmarks of gene deregulation and genome instability. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding aberrations, discusses their functional importance, suggests mechanisms by which aberrations may form during cancer progression and provides examples of clinical advances that have come from studies of(More)
Aberrant activation of the Wingless-type (Wnt) signaling pathway is associated with a variety of human cancers, and we recently reported the importance of aberrant Wnt signaling in lung cancer. On the other hand, inhibition of Wnt signaling suppresses growth in numerous cell types. Wnt inhibitory factor-1 (WIF-1) is a secreted antagonist that can bind Wnt(More)
Caveolin-3 protein is the only member of the caveolin family that shows a unique muscle-specific expression pattern, and loss of its functional activity causes muscular dystrophy. Caveolin-3 mRNA levels are dramatically increased during the formation of myotubes in the C2C12 cell line. In this study, we characterized the human caveolin-3 5'-flanking region.(More)
The PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway is frequently activated in endometrial cancer through various PI3K/AKT-activating genetic alterations. We examined the antitumor effect of NVP-BEZ235--a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor--and RAD001--an mTOR inhibitor--in 13 endometrial cancer cell lines, all of which possess one(More)
BACKGROUND Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in National Basketball Association (NBA) players. HYPOTHESES NBA players undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) have high rates of return to sport (RTS), with RTS the season following surgery, no difference in performance between pre- and postsurgery, and no difference in RTS rate(More)
BACKGROUND Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a significant injury in male Major League Soccer (MLS) players in the United States. PURPOSE To determine (1) return-to-sport (RTS) rate in MLS following ACL reconstruction (ACLR), (2) timing of RTS, (3) performance upon RTS, and (4) the difference in RTS and performance between players who underwent(More)
BACKGROUND Among gynecologic cancers, ovarian cancer is the second most common and has the highest death rate. Cancer is a genetic disorder and arises due to the accumulation of somatic mutations in critical genes. An understanding of the genetic basis of ovarian cancer has implications both for early detection and for therapeutic intervention in this(More)