Frank Müller

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We report a quantitative analysis of the different bipolar cell types of the mouse retina. They were identified in wild-type mice by specific antibodies or in transgenic mouse lines by specific expression of green fluorescent protein or Clomeleon. The bipolar cell densities, their cone contacts, their dendritic coverage, and their axonal tiling were(More)
Two of the major second generation standards, GSM and TDMA/1361, have built the foundation to offer a common global radio access for data services. Through use of a common physical layer, EDGE (Enhanced Data rates for GSM and TDMA/136 Evolution), both standards will have the same evolutionary path towards providing third-generation services. EDGE is(More)
Sympathetic neurons are specified during their development from neural crest precursors by a network of crossregulatory transcription factors, which includes Mash1, Phox2b, Hand2 and Phox2a. Here, we have studied the function of Gata2 and Gata3 zinc-finger transcription factors in autonomic neuron development. In the chick, Gata2 but not Gata3 is expressed(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels play central roles in visual and olfactory signal transduction. In the retina, rod photoreceptors express the subunits CNCalpha1 and CNCbeta1a. In cone photoreceptors, only CNCalpha2 expression has been demonstrated so far. Rat olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) express two homologous subunits, here designated CNCalpha3(More)
Sour taste is initiated by protons acting at receptor proteins or channels. In vertebrates, transduction of this taste quality involves several parallel pathways. Here we examine the effects of sour stimuli on taste cells in slices of vallate papilla from rat. From a subset of cells, we identified a hyperpolarization-activated current that was enhanced by(More)
Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels serve as downstream targets of signalling pathways in vertebrate photoreceptor cells and olfactory sensory neurons (see ref. 1 for review). Ca2+ ions that enter through CNG channels intimately control these signalling pathways by regulating synthesis or hydrolysis of cyclic nucleotides, and by decreasing ligand(More)
The generation of noradrenergic sympathetic neurons is controlled by BMPs and the downstream transcription factors Mash1, Phox2b, Phox2a and dHand. We examined the role of these signals in developing cholinergic parasympathetic neurons. The expression of Mash1 (Cash1), Phox2b and Phox2a in the chick ciliary ganglion is followed by the sequential expression(More)
The membrane-bound guanylyl cyclase in vertebrate photoreceptor cells is one of the key enzymes in visual transduction. It is highly sensitive to the free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]). The activation process is cooperative and mediated by a novel calcium-binding protein named GCAP (guanylyl cyclase-activating protein). We isolated GCAP from bovine rod(More)
A trial fibrillation (AF), the most common human cardiac arrhythmia, is associated with abnormal intracellular Ca2+ handling. Diastolic Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum via "leaky" ryanodine receptors (RyR2s) is hypothesized to contribute to arrhythmogenesis in AF, but the molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we have shown(More)
Ca2+ ions control the cGMP-gated channel of rod photoreceptor cells from the external and internal face. We studied ion selectivity and blockage by Ca2+ of wild-type and mutant channels in a heterologous expression system. External Ca2+ blocks the inward current at micromolar concentrations in a highly voltage-dependent manner. The blockage at negative(More)