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This guideline provides evidence-based key recommendations for diagnosis and therapy of gallstones and upgrades version 2000. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, surgeons, radiologists, geneticists, external comparative quality assurance and patient support groups under the auspices of the German Society for Digestive and(More)
The goal of the Complex Trait Consortium is to promote the development of resources that can be used to understand, treat and ultimately prevent pervasive human diseases. Existing and proposed mouse resources that are optimized to study the actions of isolated genetic loci on a fixed background are less effective for studying intact polygenic networks and(More)
Bacterial infections are very common and represent one of the most important reasons of progression of liver failure, development of liver-related complications, and mortality in patients with cirrhosis. In fact, bacterial infections may be a triggering factor for the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypervolemic hyponatremia, hepatic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain (NOD) 2 recognize distinct pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMS) on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm, respectively. Since they may contribute to susceptibility to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), we studied the effects of TLR2 gene variants on(More)
CONTEXT Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection outcomes include liver failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and liver-related death. OBJECTIVE To assess the association between sustained virological response (SVR) and all-cause mortality in patients with chronic HCV infection and advanced hepatic fibrosis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS An(More)
BACKGROUND Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) has a complex aetiology with a significant genetic component. ABCB11 encodes the bile salt export pump (BSEP); mutations cause a spectrum of cholestatic disease, and are implicated in the aetiology of ICP. METHODS ABCB11 variation in ICP was investigated by screening for five mutant alleles (E297G,(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), a transporter of organic anions in hepatocytes, renal epithelial cells, and enterocytes, is differentially regulated in liver and kidney during cholestasis, but little is known about its regulation in the intestine. METHODS We investigated duodenal protein expression of MRP2 in male(More)
BACKGROUND Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is characterised by troublesome maternal pruritus, raised serum bile acid levels and increased fetal risk. Mutations of the ABCB4 gene encoding the hepatobiliary phospholipid transporter have been identified in a small proportion of patients with cholestasis of pregnancy. In a recent prospective study(More)
Alcohol misuse is the leading cause of cirrhosis and the second most common indication for liver transplantation in the Western world. We performed a genome-wide association study for alcohol-related cirrhosis in individuals of European descent (712 cases and 1,426 controls) with subsequent validation in two independent European cohorts (1,148 cases and 922(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Cellular immune depression is linked to high mortality in sepsis, but has yet to be systematically analysed in liver cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to directly compare functional immune parameters in patients with acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF), severe sepsis, and non-decompensated cirrhosis. METHODS Patients with ACLF(More)