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Under similar test conditions, the electromigration reliability of Al and Cu metallization interconnect trees demonstrates significant differences because of the differences in interconnect architectural schemes. In Cu technology, the low critical stress for void nucleation at the Cu and inter-level diffusion barrier, such as Si 3 N 4 , interface, leads to(More)
—Under similar test conditions, the electromigration reliability of Al and Cu interconnect trees demonstrate significant differences because of differences in interconnect architectural schemes. The low critical stress for void nucleation at the Cu and interlevel diffusion-barrier interface leads to varying failure characteristics depending on the via(More)
In order to investigate the mechanism by which elevated extracellular calcium ions decrease tetanus tension in frog skeletal muscle, we made mechanical, electrophysiological and photographic measurements on single fibres or small bundles of fibres. Three lines of evidence point to t-tubular conduction failure as the primary mechanism of action of high(More)
Electromigration experiments were conducted to investigate the thresholds required for electromigration-induced extrusion failures in Cu/low-k interconnect structures. Extrusions at the anode were observed after long periods of void growth. Characterization of failure sites was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, which showed(More)
The authors evaluated various dicing methods in order to improve the TCT reliability against SeWaRe type of failures in glass interposers fabricated by polymer lamination over thin glass sheet cores. For blade-based dicing methods, the criteria for down-selection were (i) the least glass sidewall roughness and (ii) crack-free die edge visual inspections. In(More)
This paper reports on one of the first demonstrations of the formation and metallization of 2–5-μm lines and spaces by an embedded trench method in two dry-film polymer dielectrics, Ajinomoto build-up film and preimidized polyimide, without using chemical mechanical planarization. The trenches and vias in 8–15-μm-thick dry-film dielectrics were formed by(More)
— This paper describes the improvement of advanced semi-additive processes (SAP) to demonstrate 1.5-5 µm lines and spaces with 4-5 µm diameter photo-vias for multiple redistribution layers (RDL) at 20 µm bump pitch on glass interposers. High performance computing systems for networking and graphics are driving ultra-high bandwidth interconnections between(More)
Electromigration-induced failure remains a critical concern for evolving Cu/low-k metallization technologies. Low elastic moduli, characteristic of low-k dielectrics, and decreasing liner/diffusion barrier thicknesses, with decreased elastic stiffness, lead to significant reliability degradation [1,2]. Thus, achieving future reliability requirements, as(More)
This paper presents the design and implementation of engineered nanoscale bonding interfaces as an effective strategy to improve manufacturability of Cu-Cu bonding to the level where it can, for the first time, be applied to chip-to-substrate (C2S) assembly. All-Cu interconnections are highly sought after to meet the escalating electrical, thermal, and(More)
This paper reports the demonstration of 2-5 μm embedded trench formation in dry film polymer dielectrics such as Ajinomoto build-up film (ABF) and Polyimide without using chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. The trenches in these dielectrics were formed by excimer laser ablation, followed by metallization of trenches by copper plating processes and(More)